koptin 200 mg dosis
Murine corneas were treated with various antibiotics with or without riboflavin before UV-CXL. At 24 h, the animals were sacrificed, and the corneas were analyzed for histologic evidence of inflammation and apoptosis and for expression of apoptosis markers BAX and caspases 3 and 9 and for expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). Spectrofluorometric analysis was performed.
The purpose of this study was to set up the current level of Streptococcus pyogenes sensitivity, in pediatric patients in our community, to penicillin, clindamycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin and azithromycin.
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A phase I/II dose-escalation study of oral azithromycin in combination with pyrimethamine.
koptin 600 mg
MICs of 11 drugs for 10 MAP strains were determined using the MGIT system, the BACTEC(TM)460TB system (BACTEC) and conventional agar dilution methods.
koptin susp 900 mg
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of once-daily antimycobacterial therapy on the resolution of chronic cutaneous sarcoidosis lesions.
koptin 900 mg
During the past decade, there has been a resurgence of interest in the development of oral macrolide and fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents. Azithromycin and clarithromycin are two new oral macrolides whose pharmacokinetics (compared with those of erythromycin) are characterized by improved oral bioavailability, increased tissue penetration and persistence, and longer elimination half-lives. A limited number of interactions with other drugs have been reported for azithromycin and clarithromycin. The most common adverse reactions to the new macrolide agents include nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, temafloxacin, and lomefloxacin are the oral fluoroquinolones that have been marketed in the United States thus far. In comparison to nalidixic acid, the newer fluoroquinolones have improved pharmacokinetic properties, including greater oral absorption, increased peak serum concentrations and areas under the curve, higher tissue concentrations, and longer elimination half-lives. Divalent or trivalent cations can alter the absorption of all fluoroquinolones. Some of the fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin) can inhibit the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system and thereby cause increased serum concentrations of drugs like theophylline and caffeine. Adverse reactions to the fluoroquinolones primarily involve the gastrointestinal system, skin, and central nervous system.
koptin suspension 200 mg
Azithromycin in the treatment of C trachomatis in pregnant women substantially improved the cure rates while substantially reducing the occurrence of severe side effects associated with the use of a standard course of erythromycin. Since both tetracycline and erythromycin are known to be effective against C trachomatis infection, the improved efficacy of azithromycin is probably due to noncompliance with the multidose, multiday regimen associated with the use of these two antibiotics.
koptin suspension 400 mg
The in vitro growth inhibitory activities of 15 drugs against Babesia gibsoni were evaluated following establishment of a continuous culture isolate (Aomori isolate). The culture was successfully continued in an RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 20% normal canine serum or fetal bovine serum in a humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2 and 5% O2 at 37 degrees C. We used this isolate to evaluate the growth inhibitory effect of naphthoquinone (atovaquone), aromatic diamidine (diminazene and pentamidine), artemisinin compounds (artesunate and dihydroartemisinin), an iron chelator (deferoxamine), quinoline-containing compounds (quinine and chloroquine), macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin), lyncomycin antibiotics (clindamycin), tetracycline antibiotics (doxycycline and minocycline), imidazole antifungals (clotrimazole and ketoconazole), and a nitroimidazole antiprotozoal (metronidazole). Atovaquone and aromatic diamidine showed the highest activity; they were followed by artesunate compounds with nanomole levels of IC50. Metronidazole did not exhibit activity against the parasite. Other drugs exhibited intermediate in vitro activities with micromole levels of IC50. This is the first report to screen drug activities against B. gibsoni in vitro. The results of our study may support further in vitro drug evaluation for the establishment of therapeutic strategies against canine B. gibsoni infections.
koptin susp 200 mg
The purpose of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance among Streptococcus pyogenes in Bavaria, Germany. Five hundred and forty isolates of S. pyogenes were collected from patients with tonsillopharyngitis. Of these, 425 isolates were obtained from children and 115 from adult patients. All isolates were tested for susceptibility to macrolides, clindamycin, penicillin and 10 other commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents, using broth microdilution tests. All isolates were fully susceptible to penicillin, amoxicillin and cephalosporins; 16.1% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline. MIC(90) values of erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin and josamycin were 16, 4, 16 and 0.5 mg/L. The overall resistance rate of S. pyogenes to erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin was 13.3%. All isolates resistant to erythromycin were also resistant to clarithromycin and azithromycin, and vice versa. Erythromycin resistance rates were higher in adult patients (19.1%) than in children (11.8%). The resistance rate to josamycin was only 1.5%, a value similar to that of clindamycin (1.1%). Among the 72 erythromycin-resistant isolates the M phenotype of macrolide resistance predominated (78%), while percentages of cMLS(B) (8%) and iMLS(B) (14%) phenotypes were low. Of the iMLS(B) strains (n = 10), the majority were of the subtype C (n = 8). The M phenotype was associated with a low, and the iMLS(B)-C phenotype with a high, rate of resistance to tetracycline. Conclusively, present data point to rising macrolide resistance among S. pyogenes in Bavaria.
koptin azitromicina 900 mg
Cat scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae, is a zoonosis and characterized by self-limited lymphadenopathy. It is transmitted commonly by scratch or bite from cats or kitten. We report an unusual case of CSD caused by a domestic dog scratch that we believe is the first report in Taiwan. A 23-year-old healthy woman developed cervical lymphadenopathy, mild fever, headache, and malaise 3 days after dog scratch. Her symptoms improved after azithromycin treatment. Serology proved B. henselae infection. The owners of a domestic dog might be at risk of "cat" scratch disease.
This study, in agreement with earlier smaller studies, suggests that the new macrolides do not pose a significantly increased risk of major congenital malformations or cardiac malformations.