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We included 1527 patients. The probability of developing a first rCDI was 25% (354/1418); a second, 38% (128/334); a third, 29% (35/121); and a fourth or more, 27% (9/33). Two or more rCDIs were observed in 9% (128/1389) of patients. The risk of a first recurrence fluctuated over time, but there was no such variation for second or further recurrences. The proportion of severe cases decreased (47% for initial episodes, 31% for first recurrences, 25% for second, 17% for third), as did the risk of complicated CDI (5.8% to 2.8%). The severity and risk of complications of first recurrences decreased over time, while oral vancomycin was used more systemically. A hospital admission was needed for 34% (148/434) of recurrences.
Of the 285 physicians surveyed, 167 (59%) responded. There were no significant differences in geography, level of experience, or hospital type between respondents and non-respondents. All respondents (100%) used oral metronidazole for the initial occurrence of mild CDI in a normal host. Management varied substantially for mild CDI in patients with a variety of comorbidities, in whom metronidazole therapy was less frequently preferred (41-79%). For management of severe CDI, 65% preferred oral vancomycin alone or in combination with at least one other agent. For a second recurrence, oral vancomycin alone or in combination was preferred by 92%. Among 125 respondents who reported using alternative therapies for recurrent or severe CDI, 23 (18%) recommend fecal microbiota transplantation, while 20 (16%) reported using fidaxomicin.
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Molecular typing of H. pylori from family members does not predict antibiotic susceptibility pattern.
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Identification of Capnocytophaga facilitates appropriate, and in most cases effective, antimicrobial therapy.
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Busulfan is a bifunctional alkylating agent widely used in pretransplant conditioning regimens in patients undergoing stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies. Busulfan metabolism is best described by hepatic conjugation to glutathione by GSTA1, although some CYP-dependent pathways have been described. Currently there is 1 publication describing the drug interaction between oral busulfan and oral metronidazole, in which concomitant use of metronidazole resulted in higher busulfan trough concentrations and higher risk of veno-occlusive disease. Our case represents a possible drug interaction based on the Horn Drug Interaction Probability Scale.
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Polydioxanone (PDS)-based fibrous scaffolds containing both metronidazole (MET) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) at selected ratios were synthesized via electrospinning. Fibre diameter was evaluated based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Pure PDS scaffolds and a saturated CIP/MET solution (i.e. 50 mg of each antibiotic in 1 mL) (hereafter referred to as DAP) served as both negative (nontoxic) and positive (toxic) controls, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to investigate the amount of drug(s) released from the scaffolds. WST-1(®) proliferation assay was used to evaluate the effect of the scaffolds on cell proliferation. LIVE/DEAD(®) assay was used to qualitatively assess cell viability. Data obtained from drug release and proliferation assays were statistically analysed at the 5% significance level.
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The mean age of our patients was 30 +/- 7 years and there were 2 males and 6 females. They presented with fever and abdominal pain for more than 2 months, tender hepatomegaly, a raised ESR and alkaline phosphatase. US and CT scans showed multiple large abscesses in the right lobe. Histology suggested chronic inflammation and with no definite organism isolated except for visceral larva migrans in one case. All patients underwent surgery--deroofing with drainage was done in four, segmental hepatic resection in three and right hepatectomy in one. One patient had a recurrence and underwent repeated resection. Only one patient died and 7 did well with no recurrence at a mean followup of 24 +/- 27 months.
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A randomised controlled trial compared PPT and ESM by prevalence and incidence, behaviour, retention, cost and STI incidence and prevalence. Demographic, behavioural and clinical data were collected from women at two clinics in Dhaka. All women received presumptive treatment and were randomised to receive PPT or ESM at nine monthly visits.
In the Indian population, the prevalence of resistance of H. pylori is very high to metronidazole, moderate to clarithromycin and amoxycillin and low to ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. The rate of resistance was higher in southern India than in northern India. The E-test emerges as a reliable quantitative antibiotic susceptibility test. A change in antibiotic policy to provide scope for rotation of antibiotics in the treatment of H. pylori in India is a public health emergency.
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Both therapeutic protocols resulted in similar significant clinical improvement for most parameters at 1 year (p < 0.01). The AMX + MET group exhibited shallower residual pockets than the placebo (p = 0.05). Most periodontal pathogens decreased, whereas beneficial bacteria increased in counts in both groups over time (p < 0.0012). High levels of some periodontal and other microbial pathogens were associated with disease persistence regardless treatment.