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A 54-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for investigation of cough, sputum production, and fever of 1 month's duration. His diabetes mellitus was poorly controlled, and his hemoglobin HbA1c value was elevated at 10.9%. Chest X-ray film and computed tomography scan showed bilateral but predominantly right-sided pleural effusion. Aspiration of the pleural fluid from the right-side showed frank pus, and empyema was diagnosed. Capnocytophaga sp. and Actinomyces israelii were isolated in the pleural effusion and were regarded as the pathogens causing the empyema. Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated in his sputum, and it may also have been a possible pathogen. The patient improved with administration of antibiotics (6 g/day ampicillin/sulbactam, 3 g/day ceftazidime hydrate and 1200 mg/day clindamycin) and chest tube drainage. He was discharged and regularly followed on an outpatient basis. We report this rare case of Capnocytophaga sp. and Actinomyces israelii as the pathogenic causes of empyema.
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Clinical cure or improvement at 25 to 39 days was noted in 55 (69.6%) of 79 assessable participants who received clindamycin vaginal cream and in 33 (41.8%) of 79 women who received triple sulfonamide vaginal cream (P < 0.0001). Most of the difference between the treatment groups was noted in women with a history of bacterial vaginosis. Among women without a history of bacterial vaginosis, clindamycin and triple sulfonamide creams had similar efficacy. Evaluation of Gram-stained vaginal smears correlated with clinical outcome. Most patients in both treatment groups reported an improvement in symptoms. No significant difference was observed between the treatment groups in the incidence of adverse events.
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Staphylococci are one of the most common pathogens isolated from nosocomial and community acquired infections. Antibiotics such as clindamycin and erythromycin have been useful options for treating skin and soft-tissue infections caused by staphylococci. However, expression of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance (MLSB) can limit the effectiveness of these drugs. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and phenotypes of MLSB resistance in staphylococcus strains isolated from clinical samples and to determine the telithromycin activity against these isolates. A total of 218 strains [92 Staphylococcus aureus and 126 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS)] isolated from different clinical samples (wound, abscess, blood, sterile body fluids, catheter, upper respiratory tract samples) between February 2011 to December 2012 were included in the study. The isolates were identified by using conventional methods and automated bacterial identification system (BD Phoenix 100™ System, Becton Dickinson, USA). Methicillin resistance of the isolates was determined with the use of cefoxitin (30 µg) disk and telithromycin (15 µg) activity was detected by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. MLSB resistance phenotypes were investigated by the D-test method using erythromycin (15 µg) and clindamycin (2 µg) disks. Of 92 S.aureus isolates, 23 were methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and 69 were methicillin-susceptible (MSSA), whereas 78 of 126 CNS isolates were methicillin-resistant (MRCNS) and 48 were methicillin-susceptible (MSCNS). Hundred and seventy-two (79%) isolates were found as erythromycin-resistant, and the rates of erythromycin resistance in MRSA, MSSA, MRCNS and MSCNS strains were 83%, 71%, 95% and 63%, respectively. Inducible type of MLSB resistance (iMLSB type) was observed in 26%, 6%, 51% and 33%; chromosomal resistance (cMLSB type) in 32%, 27%, 27% and 17% and efflux pump connected resistance (MSB type) in 42%, 67%, 22% and 50% of the MRSA, MSSA, MRCNS and MSCNS, respectively. Forty-four (20%) strains were found susceptible to both clindamycin and erythromycin (S type resistance). Resistance due to enzymatic inactivation (L type) was observed only in two of the CNS strains (0.9%), one was methicillin-resistant and the other was susceptible. Total telithromycin resistance was detected as 26.6% (n= 58), while the resistance rates in MRSA, MSSA, MRCNS and MSKNS isolates were 35%, 35%, 28% and 8%, respectively. Telithromycin resistance rate was 34% (58/172) in erythromycin-resistant isolates. However, all erythromycin-susceptible isolates (n= 46) were also susceptible to telithromycin. Telithromycin-resistant isolates frequently exhibited cMLSB phenotype (39/44; 67.2%), followed by MSB (16/72; 27.6%) and iMLSB (3/56; 5.2%). In conclusion, clindamycin is still an effective antibiotic for the treatment of staphylococcal infections in our hospital, however, 34% resistance rate against telithromycin may limit the use of this agent which is an alternative for the treatment of infections caused by clindamycin and erythromycin-resistant strains.
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All nine strains of A. vaginae were highly resistant to nalidixic acid and colistin while being inhibited by low concentrations of clindamycin (range: < 0.016 microg/ml), rifampicin (< 0.002 microg/ml), azithromycin (< 0.016-0.32 microg/ml), penicillin (0.008-0.25 microg/ml), ampicillin (< 0.016-0.94 microg/ml), ciprofloxacin (0.023-0.25 microg/ml) and linezolid (0.016-0.125 microg/ml). We found a variable susceptibility for metronidazole, ranging from 2 to more than 256 microg/ml. The four G. vaginalis strains were also susceptible for clindamycin (< 0.016-0.047 microg/ml) and three strains were susceptible to less than 1 microg/ml of metronidazole. All lactobacilli were resistant to metronidazole (> 256 microg/ml) but susceptible to clindamycin (0.023-0.125 microg/ml).
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Skin infection and/or nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in children with atopic dermatitis (AD) is a risk factor for exacerbating disease or subsequent recurrent S. aureus infection. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibilities of S. aureus strains from AD children and determine the most appropriate choice of antibiotics.
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A policy of empiric treatment of suspected Toxoplasma encephalitis is satisfactory, and patients who respond to such therapy and continue to take full therapeutic doses of anti-Toxoplasma drugs have relatively long survivals.
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A prospective study was conducted at ESI-PGIMSR and ESIC Medical College, Joka, a tertiary care teaching hospital in Eastern India for a period of four months (from 1st January 2016 to 30th April 2016). Neonates were screened for omphalitis on the basis of presence of pus and redness for inclusion. Clinical examination, Gram stain and culture of umbilical discharge, identification of organisms by biochemical tests and VITEK 2 Compact (bioMereiux Inc., France) was done. Antimicrobial susceptibility by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method and E-strip agar diffusion method (for vancomycin and teicoplanin) were performed and interpreted according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines version 2015.
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A prospective study of pneumococcal infections was performed in cooperation with 40 clinical microbiology laboratories in Germany. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for 844 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, isolated from patients with systemic infections, were determined in tests with penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, and clindamycin by a standard broth microdilution method; 1.8% of pneumococcal isolates exhibited reduced susceptibility to penicillin (MIC, > or = 0.1 micrograms/mL). The Etest, which was used to confirm the level of resistance to penicillin, proved to be a reliable and easily performed method for determination of MICs. The rates of resistance to clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol were 1.4%, 3.2%, 11.0%, and 1.9%, respectively. Resistance to cefotaxime was not observed. Typing of a randomly selected subgroup of all strains (n = 115) showed types 1 (9.6%), 14 (8.7%), 3 (7.8%), and 23F (7.8%) to be the most prevalent types in Germany. At least 86.1% of these pneumococcal strains belonged to capsular types included in the 23-valent vaccine.
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Multidrug resistance of Plasmodium falciparum is becoming common in Africa. In a randomized trial, four short-term regimens were compared for treating uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in children 4-15 years old in Gabon. One hundred thirty patients received chloroquine (25 mg/kg over 48 h; group C), chloroquine (as above) plus clindamycin (5 mg/kg every 12 h for 6 doses; group CCl), quinine (12 mg/kg every 12 h for 6 doses; group Q), or quinine (as above) plus clindamycin (as above; group QCl). In group C, only 9% of patients were cured by day 28, 44% showed recrudescent malaria (RI), and 47% showed intermediate or high-grade resistance (RII/RIII). In group CCl, 70% of patients were cured and 30% showed recrudescences. In group Q, 32% were cured and 68% showed recrudescences. In group QCl, 88% were cured and 12% showed recrudescences after day 14. All treatment regimens were well tolerated. Thus, the combination of clindamycin with chloroquine or quinine enhances parasite clearance and improves response to therapy.