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There is increasing evidence that Escherichia coli organisms are important in Crohn's disease (CD) pathogenesis. In CD tissue they are found within macrophages, and the adherent-invasive CD ileal E. coli isolate LF82 can replicate inside macrophage phagolysosomes. This study investigates replication and antibiotic susceptibility of CD colonic E. coli isolates inside macrophages. Replication of CD colonic E. coli within J774-A1 murine macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) was assessed by culture and lysis after gentamicin killing of noninternalized bacteria and verified by electron microscopy (EM). All seven CD colonic isolates tested replicated within J774-A1 macrophages by 3 h (6.36-fold +/- 0.7-fold increase; n = 7 isolates) to a similar extent to CD ileal E. coli LF82 (6.8-fold +/- 0.8-fold) but significantly more than control patient isolates (5.2-fold +/- 0.25-fold; n = 6; P = 0.006) and E. coli K-12 (1.0-fold +/- 0.1-fold; P < 0.0001). Replication of CD E. coli HM605 within HMDM (3.9-fold +/- 0.7-fold) exceeded that for K-12 (1.4-fold +/- 0.2-fold; P = 0.03). EM showed replicating E. coli within macrophage vacuoles. Killing of HM605 within J774-A1 macrophages following a 3-h incubation with antibiotics at published peak serum concentrations (C(max)) was as follows: for ciprofloxacin, 99.5% +/- 0.2%; rifampin, 85.1% +/- 6.6%; tetracycline, 62.8% +/- 6.1%; clarithromycin, 62.1% +/- 5.6% (all P < 0.0001); sulfamethoxazole, 61.3% +/- 7.0% (P = 0.0007); trimethoprim, 56.3% +/- 3.4% (P < 0.0001); and azithromycin, 41.0% +/- 10.5% (P = 0.03). Ampicillin was not effective against intracellular E. coli. Triple antibiotic combinations were assessed at 10% C(max), with ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim causing 97% +/- 0.0% killing versus 86% +/- 2.0% for ciprofloxacin alone. Colonic mucosa-associated E. coli, particularly CD isolates, replicate within macrophages. Clinical trials are indicated to assess the efficacy of a combination antibiotic therapy targeting intramacrophage E. coli.
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As a second-line treatment for H. pylori eradication in the case of first-line OAC (omeprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin) treatment failure, a minimum of one-week OBMT quadruple therapy composed of omeprazole, bismuth, metronidazole, tetracycline has been recommended in European countries and one or two weeks in USA. In Korea, one-week OBMT quadruple therapy is recommended for the case of first-line OAC treatment failure. Because H. pylori eradication rate of one-week OBMT therapy in Korea is about 80%, the eradication rate of one week therapy is not satisfactory. We analyzed the effect of two-week second-line OBMT therapy.
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Drug interactions occur when the efficacy or toxicity of a medication is changed by administration of another substance. Pharmacokinetic interactions often occur as a result of a change in drug metabolism. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 oxidises a broad spectrum of drugs by a number of metabolic processes. The location of CYP3A4 in the small bowel and liver permits an effect on both presystemic and systemic drug disposition. Some interactions with CYP3A4 inhibitors may also involve inhibition of P-glycoprotein. Clinically important CYP3A4 inhibitors include itraconazole, ketoconazole, clarithromycin, erythromycin, nefazodone, ritonavir and grapefruit juice. Torsades de pointes, a life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia associated with QT prolongation, can occur when these inhibitors are coadministered with terfenadine, astemizole, cisapride or pimozide. Rhabdomyolysis has been associated with the coadministration of some 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors ('statins') and CYP3A4 inhibitors. Symptomatic hypotension may occur when CYP3A4 inhibitors are given with some dihydropyridine calcium antagonists, as well with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor sildenafil. Excessive sedation can result from concomitant administration of benzodiazepine (midazolam, triazolam, alprazolam or diazepam) or nonbenzodiazepine (zopiclone and buspirone) hypnosedatives with CYP3A4 inhibitors. Ataxia can occur with carbamazepine, and ergotism with ergotamine, following the addition of a CYP3A4 inhibitor. Beneficial drug interactions can occur. Administration of a CYP3A4 inhibitor with cyclosporin may allow reduction of the dosage and cost of the immunosuppressant. Certain HIV protease inhibitors, e.g. saquinavir, have low oral bioavailability that can be profoundly increased by the addition of ritonavir. The clinical importance of any drug interaction depends on factors that are drug-, patient- and administration-related. Generally, a doubling or more in plasma drug concentration has the potential for enhanced adverse or beneficial drug response. Less pronounced pharmacokinetic interactions may still be clinically important for drugs with a steep concentration-response relationship or narrow therapeutic index. In most cases, the extent of drug interaction varies markedly among individuals; this is likely to be dependent on interindividual differences in CYP3A4 tissue content, pre-existing medical conditions and, possibly, age. Interactions may occur under single dose conditions or only at steady state. The pharmacodynamic consequences may or may not closely follow pharmacokinetic changes. Drug interactions may be most apparent when patients are stabilised on the affected drug and the CYP3A4 inhibitor is then added to the regimen. Temporal relationships between the administration of the drug and CYP3A4 inhibitor may be important in determining the extent of the interaction.
Gatifloxacin is a novel extended-spectrum fluoroquinolone with improved gram-positive and anaerobe coverage compared with older agents such as ciprofloxacin. It has good activity (but is slightly less active than ciprofloxacin) against Enterobacteriaceae. Gatifloxacin is generally 2- to 4-fold more active than ciprofloxacin against staphylococci, streptococci and enterococci and 4- to 16-fold more active than ciprofloxacin against anaerobes, including Clostridium and Bacteroides spp. In comparative clinical trials that included patients with lower respiratory tract, urinary tract, skin and soft tissue or gonococcal infections, clinical cure rates of > or = 89% were achieved with oral gatifloxacin 400 mg/day for 7 to 14 days. Data from a subset of North American patients included in a multinational trial showed that oral gatifloxacin 400 mg/day produced a significantly higher clinical cure rate than cefuroxime axetil 250 mg twice daily (89 vs 77%; p = 0.01) in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. The clinical efficacy of gatifloxacin was similar to that of clarithromycin or levofloxacin or ceftriaxone (with or without erythromycin) in the treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Oral gatifloxacin 400 mg/day showed clinical and bacteriological efficacy similar to that of levofloxacin in patients with skin and soft tissue infections. In patients with urinary tract infections, clinical cure and bacterial eradication rates achieved with a single 400 g oral dose of gatifloxacin were similar to those produced with ciprofloxacin. In a pooled analysis of tolerability data from trials that included 3021 patients treated with oral gatifloxacin 400 mg/day, the most commonly reported adverse events were nausea (8%), diarrhoea (4%), headache (4%) and dizziness (3%). The drug was reported to be well tolerated. Gatifloxacin does not appear to cause phototoxic effects.
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Resistance to clarithromycin, A-negative status, and gender were predictive factors of eradication failure.
Antibiotic resistance has begun to impair the ability to cure Helicobacter pylori infection.
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There was seasonal variation in the incidence of NTM disease, analogous to recently published observations in tuberculosis, which have been linked to seasonal variation in vitamin D. Our finding that anti-mycobacterial combination therapy was associated with a reduced risk of recurrences in patients with NTM lymphadenitis or SSTI requires further confirmation in prospective trials.
The ability of antibiotics to penetrate the target organs is an important factor for the clinical effects and side effects in the treatment of infection. In the present study, the comparative tissue distribution of 4 kinds of macrolide antibiotics was determined in rats. After oral administration of 20 mg/kg, roxithromycin (RXM) had the highest plasma concentration, and clarithromycin (CAM) has the second highest. The Cmax of RXM and CAM were 2.7 and 1.0 micrograms/ml, respectively. On the other hand, both levels of erythromycin-stearate (EM-S) and azithromycin (AZM) were extremely low, with a Cmax of 0.1 microgram/ml. Concentration of the 4 compounds were measurable in the liver, kidney, spleen, lung and heart. The concentration in all tissues for each compound were significantly higher than those in the plasma. AZM had the most sustained and the highest tissue levels. The distribution patterns of RXM and AZM were almost similar to the case of EM-S, in that the highest tissue concentration was observed in the liver, followed in descending order by concentration in the kidney, spleen, lung and heart. On the other hand, CAM had the highest concentration in the lung, and was moderated in the liver. Major clinical indications are infections of the respiratory tracts, and commonly reported side-effects are hepatotoxity. Therefore, it is worth noting that the lung levels of CAM were significantly higher than in the liver, as the separation of clinical effects and side-effects.
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A cross-sectional study was conducted on 92 consenting GPs from the 109 contacted in Central and East Trinidad, between January to June 2003. Using a pilot-tested questionnaire, GPs identified the 5 most frequent URTIs they see in office and reported on their antimicrobial prescribing practices for these URTIs to trained research students.
In this multicentre, open-label, randomised trial, we recruited adult patients (aged >20 years) with H pylori infection from nine medical centres in Taiwan. Patients who had at least two positive tests from the rapid urease test, histology, culture, or serology or who had a single positive (13)C-urea breath test for gastric cancer screening were eligible for enrolment. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to either concomitant therapy (lansoprazole 30 mg, amoxicillin 1 g, clarithromycin 500 mg, and metronidazole 500 mg, all given twice daily) for 10 days; bismuth quadruple therapy (bismuth tripotassium dicitrate 300 mg four times a day, lansoprazole 30 mg twice daily, tetracycline 500 mg four times a day, and metronidazole 500 mg three times a day) for 10 days; or triple therapy (lansoprazole 30 mg, amoxicillin 1 g, and clarithromycin 500 mg, all given twice daily) for 14 days. A computer-generated permuted block randomisation sequence with a block size of 6 was used for randomisation, and the sequence was concealed in an opaque envelope until the intervention was assigned. Investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was the eradication frequency of H pylori with first-line therapy assessed in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01906879.
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In this study we assessed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and resistance rates of several antibiotics in 65 primary and 324 secondary Helicobacter pylori isolates from Korean patients. Primary resistance to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, tetracycline, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin was 18.5%, 13.8%, 66.2%, 12.3%, 32.3%, 33.8%, 21.5% and 21.5%, respectively. Secondary resistance was 31.3%, 85.1%, 70.1%, 0%, 89.6%, 35.8%, 32.8% and 32.8%, respectively. Sequence analysis of pbp1A in H. pylori strains with an amoxicillin MIC >or=2 microg/mL revealed C206T (Asp69-->Val), C1667G (Thr556-->Ser), A1684T (Asn562-->Tyr), A1777G (Thr593-->Ala) and C1798A (Pro600-->Thr) substitutions. Eleven (16.4%) of 67 treatment failures showed mixed infections with antibiotic-susceptible and -resistant H. pylori. The most common multidrug resistance profile was to clarithromycin, metronidazole and azithromycin. These results indicate that MIC values of secondary isolates were higher than those of primary isolates and that resistance to amoxicillin is probably mediated through mutations in pbp1A.
105 articles were selected. In vitro and in vivo reports on the pharmacokinetics, microbiology, pharmacology, and effectiveness of clarithromycin and azithromycin were assessed to compare their effectiveness and safety. Emphasis was placed on the use of these new drugs in treating infections caused by Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium chelonae, and Mycobacterium fortuitum infections.