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According to the intention-to-treat (ITT) protocol, ulcer healing was observed in 90% of patients in the rabeprazole 40 group, in 85.7% in the rabeprazole 20 group and in 93.3% in the omeprazole 40 group. We observed H. pylori eradication in 90% ITT in the rabeprazole 40 group, in 80.9% ITT in the rabeprazole 20 group and in 88.8% ITT in the omeprazole 40 group. Statistical analysis did not show significant differences among the three groups.
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Clarithromycin and rifabutin are among the most promising drugs for the therapy of infections caused by Mycobacterium avium or other atypical mycobacteria. Since synergism of combined drugs is important in order to achieve strong antimycobacterial activity, the combined inhibitory effects of antibacterial agents should also be investigated when agents are evaluated for possible use in antimycobacterial drug therapy. In the present study we examined the antimycobacterial activity of clarithromycin, rifabutin, and their combination against 51 clinical isolates of the M. avium complex from patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) with disseminated mycobacteriosis. A concentration-dependent inhibition was seen for each drug. The antibacterial effect was significantly more pronounced for the combined drugs than for the agents tested separately. Synergism, against up to 88% of the strains tested, was seen for the tested drugs combined at different concentrations. All 51 M. avium strains were susceptible to the combination of 4 mg/l clarithromycin and 2 mg/l rifabutin.
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Endoscopic findings were as follows: Seven patients with antral gastritis, two patients with pangastritis, whereas five patients were found to be endoscopically normal. None of the subjects were found to have gastrointestinal bleeding of any type. Serum hemoglobin, iron and transferrin saturations of the patients were found to be increased at 20-24 weeks of follow-up after the eradication therapy. Serum ferritin levels were not found to be increased.
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Susceptibility pattern and resistance phenotype were determined by disk diffusion method and double disk test. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics were obtained by the agar dilution method and evaluated according to the recommendations of the 'Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie' (CA-SFM). The major determinants of erythromycin resistance in S. pyogenes (ermB, ermTR and mefA genes) were investigated by specific amplification protocols.
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To compare the efficacy of a single vs. double dose of proton pump inhibitor in triple therapy.
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Pranlukast is a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist that has been used to treat bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. In vitro data suggest that pranlukast is a substrate of CYP3A4. Thus, the effect of clarithromycin, a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of pranlukast was examined in an open-label, randomized, two-way crossover study in 16 healthy male volunteers. In treatment A, volunteers received a single, 225 mg dose of pranlukast. In treatment B, 200 mg of clarithromycin was administered twice daily for 7 days and a single, 225 mg dose of pranlukast was coadministered on day 7. Blood samples were collected up to 24 hours after treatment, and pranlukast concentrations in the plasma were measured. The geometric mean ratios [GMR] (90% confidence intervals [CIs]) for pranlukast AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) (with/without clarithromycin) were 1.06 (0.91, 1.24) and 1.17 (0.95, 1.45), respectively. In conclusion, clarithromycin and pranlukast could be coadministered without dose adjustment because clarithromycin minimally affected the pharmacokinetics of pranlukast.
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BACKGROUND: In patients with hereditary bleeding disorders, upper gastrointestinal bleeding presents a life-threatening complication, while the role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in this group of patients has not been fully clarified in the literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of H. pylori infection and of dental status in upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic disorders (HHD). METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with HHD (18 patients with and 19 without a history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding) and 26 control patients without HHD, who were admitted to our hospital for elective gastroscopy due to dyspeptic symptoms, were included in the study. Endoscopy was performed on all patients with gastrointestinal bleeding and on controls. ELISA was used to detect IgG, anti-CagA, and IgA antibodies to H. pylori in the serum and saliva of patients and controls. Moreover, dental status was examined using the decayed/missing/filled teeth index (DMFT) in all subjects. The chi(2)-test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Some 64.8% of the patients and 65.4% of the controls had H. pylori IgG antibodies in serum (P>0.1, NS) while 54.05% of the patients and 34.6% of controls were anti-CagA-positive in serum (P=NS). However, 83 and 26.3% of the HHD patients with and without gastrointestinal bleeding, respectively, were serum anti-CagA-positive (P<0.01) while 72 and 58%, respectively, were serum IgG-positive (P=NS). H. pylori antibodies in saliva and the DMFT calculated index did not differ between the two subgroups. Subsequently, all serum anti-CagA-positive HHD patients received 1-week of triple H. pylori eradication therapy with omeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin orally. During a 2-year follow-up, none of these patients reported upper gastrointestinal bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Although no statistically significant difference in H. pylori infection was found between HHD and controls, the CagA strain appeared more frequently in those HHD patients with a history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Given our results and the limited data available in the literature, we would recommend anti-CagA screening and therapy to all patients with HHD. However, further studies with a longer follow-up and a greater number of patients are necessary.
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The regimen with a non-reduced dose of furazolidone in combination with amoxycillin and omeprazole was effective when the patients tolerated the drugs and completed the study.