A series of 119 Mycobacterium avium complex isolates were subjected to clarithromycin susceptibility testing using microplates containing 2,3-diphenyl-5-thienyl-(2)-tetrazolium chloride (STC). Among 119 isolates, 114 (95.8%) were susceptible to clarithromycin and 5 were resistant according to the new and the standard method. STC counts the low cost and reduces the number of procedures needed for susceptibility testing.
2',4''-O-Bis(trimethylsilyl)erythromycin A-9-O-(1-isopropoxycyclohexyl)oxime (2',4''-TMS-EMIPCH) and 2',4''-O-bis(trimethylsilyl)-6-O-methylerythromycin A-9-O-(1-isopropoxycyclohexyl)oxime (2',4"-TMS-IPCH) are the key intermediates for manufacturing clarithromycin. A qualitative and quantitative method for baseline separation of E- and Z-isomers and related process substances has been established. A DIKMA-Inertsil ODS-3 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 microm) was used. The column temperature was maintained at 40 degrees C. The mobile phase was CH3CN-H2O (95:5, v/v). The flow rate was 1.5 mL/min and the detection wavelength was UV 205 nm. Good linearities for E-2',4''-TMS-EMIPCH and E-2',4''-TMS-IPCH were obtained in the ranges of 6-60 microg (r = 0.9994) and 6-72 microg (r = 0.9998), respectively. The method described has also been demonstrated to work equally well on other 2',4''-O-bis(trimethylsilyl)erythromycin 9-oxime hydroxyl derivatives, which provided the criterion for optimizing the protective groups at 9-oxime hydroxyl position and the study of regioselectivity of methylation at the 6-OH position.
We report a case of pulmonary infection caused by Mycobacterium chelonae. The patient was a healthy breastfeeding 29 year-old female. An abnormal shadow had been pointed out by the chest X-ray in the regular checkup of the office workers. The chest X-ray film showed consolidation at right lower lung field, which initially suggested pulmonary tuberculosis. The chest CT scan showed scattered consolidation. Smears and cultures of the sputum were repeatedly positive for mycobacteria, which was identified as M. chelonae. By chemotherapy with isoniazid, rifampicin, and clarithromycin on the basis of susceptibility test, sputum converted to negative within 2 months, abnormal shadows on the roentgenogram and laboratory data showed improvement. There are no signs of recurrence after completion of the treatment for 12 months.
Research on cryptosporidiosis, presented at the 1995 International Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC), includes research into problems with tap water and new anti-cryptosporidiosis treatments. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) presents research findings on cryptosporidiosis and tap water that suggest AIDS patients should either boil their water before drinking it or drink bottled water. Anti-cryptosporidiosis treatments presented include the use of low-dose herbicides, enzyme-inhibiting compounds that block an essential phase of the parasite's life cycle, and combination drug therapy using paromomycin and clarithromycin.
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One hundred and sixty H. pylori-infected patients were randomized into a triple-plus-yogurt group or a triple-only group, receiving 1 week of triple therapy with and without supplements of AB-Yogurt, respectively. In the triple-plus-yogurt group, AB-Yogurt was continued for 4 weeks after triple therapy. Eight weeks later, patients were assessed for the success of H. pylori eradication. The stool samples of 22 randomly selected patients, 11 from each group, were provided on enrolment, at the first week and at the fifth week for evaluation of the percentage of Bifidobacterium in anaerobes.
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The cancer risk after eradication correlated with the severity of corpus atrophy. It should be possible to identify subgroups requiring intensive and less intensive surveillance after eradication.
High rate of resistance to fluoroquinolones was seen despite the fact that the drug was not part of the first-line anti-helicobacter therapy. There was moderate increase of clarithromycin resistance beyond the cutoff rates where empirical use of this antibiotic is abandoned. The findings warrant the need for pre-treatment susceptibility testing in Helicobacter pylori infections, especially in Pakistan where burden of disease is high and very limited data is available, to improve patient care by providing targeted therapy.
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Lymphocytes predominantly express delayed rectifier K(+)-channels (Kv1.3) in their plasma membranes, and the channels play crucial roles in the lymphocyte activation and proliferation. Since macrolide antibiotics, such as clarithromycin and azithromycin, exert immunomodulatory effects, they would affect the Kv1.3-channel currents in lymphocytes.