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Escherichia coli was identified in 56/69 (81 %) peritoneal specimens; four isolates were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate, and one other isolate was resistant to gentamicin. Anaerobes were identified in 37/69 (54 %) peritoneal specimens; two anaerobic isolates were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate and one isolate was resistant to metronidazole. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was identified in 4/69 (6 %) peritoneal specimens, and all were susceptible to gentamicin. Streptococcal species (two Group F streptococci and three β-haemolytic streptococci) were identified in 5/69 (7 %) specimens, and all were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate. Combination therapy involving amoxicillin-clavulanate and aminoglycoside is appropriate empirical treatment in 68/69 (99 %) patients. Addition of metronidazole to this regime would provide 100 % initial empirical coverage. Inadequate initial empiric antibiotic treatment and the presence of amoxicillin-clavulanate resistant E. coli were independent predictors of the post-operative infectious complications observed in 14/69 (20 %) patients.
To compare the efficacy and tolerability of a 5-day course of telithromycin (800 mg once daily) with a 10-day course of telithromycin or standard comparators (amoxicillin-clavulanate 500/125 mg three times daily or cefuroxime axetil 250 mg twice daily) in patients with acute maxillary sinusitis (AMS).
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We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared one antibiotic regimen used as prophylaxis for SSIs (and other postoperative infections) with another antibiotic regimen or with no antibiotic, and that reported the methicillin resistance status of the cultured organisms. We did not limit our search for RCTs by language, publication status, publication year, or sample size.
A simple, rapid and accurate method for simultaneous determination of amoxycillin and clavulanic acid using HPLC with beta-cyclodextrin stationary phase was developed. It involves the use of tetraethylammonium acetate (TEAA) as an additive reagent, methanol-buffer solution (pH 4.5) (35:65; v/v) as the mobile phase, detection at 225 mm and chromatogram within 12 min. Linearity and precision of the internal standard method have been obtained. Recoveries ranged from 99.25 to 105.63% for amoxycillin in the synthetic mixture. For clavulanic acid it was from 99.50 to 101.64%. This method is convenient and reproducible for analyses of these two components in different dosage forms.
This study highlights the increasing resistance of Neisseriae meningitidis to empirically used antimicrobial drugs.
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The pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profile of an antimicrobial agent provides important information that can be used to maximize bacteriologic and clinical efficacy, minimize selective pressure for the development of antimicrobial resistance, and determine an optimal dosing regimen. Judicious selection of an antimicrobial based on local susceptibility data and PK and PD parameters is imperative in this era of increasing resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae, a leading cause of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. The beta-lactam antimicrobials display time-dependent bacterial killing with minimal to no persistent effects. Ketolides and fluoroquinolones display concentration-dependent bacterial killing, and tetracyclines and macrolides display time-dependent killing. All have prolonged persistent effects (e.g., postantibiotic effect) that retard or prevent bacterial regrowth when free drug levels fall below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). New high-dose and/or extended-release formulations of traditional antimicrobials have been added to the current armamentarium for treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. These formulations include amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium powder for oral suspension 90/6.4 mg/kg per day divided every 12 hours (Augmentin ES-600; GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC), amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium extended-release tablets 2 x 1,000 mg/62.5 mg every 12 hours (Augmentin XR; GlaxoSmithKline), clarithromycin extended-release tablets 2 x 500 mg once daily (Biaxin XL; Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, IL), and cefaclor extended-release tablets 375 mg or 500 mg every 12 hours (Ceclor CD; Eli Lilly Pharmaceuticals, Indianapolis, IN). Of these agents, only amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium powder for oral suspension and amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium extended-release tablets were designed to treat infections caused by penicillin-resistant pneumococci (penicillin MIC < or =2 microg/mL). Extended-release clarithromycin does not provide higher daily doses than its immediate-release counterpart; rather, it allows for once-daily dosing of this agent because of its slower absorption following oral administration. Extended-release cefaclor is considered clinically equivalent to 250 mg of immediate-release cefaclor pulvules administered 3 times daily; it cannot be used interchangeably with 500 mg 3-times-daily dosages of other cefaclor formulations. Thus, despite providing a similar or higher total daily dose than its immediate-release counterpart, extended-release cefaclor is indicated only for the treatment of patients with mild to moderate infections caused by susceptible strains of certain organisms.
A 12-bed, adult surgical intensive care unit in a university-affiliated hospital in France.
To determine prognostic factors that independently predict response to antimicrobial therapy in children with acute sinusitis.
Pharmacists are the custodians of drugs; hence their education, training, behaviors and experiences would affect the future use of drugs at community and hospital pharmacies. Therefore, we aimed at evaluating the self-prescribing antibiotic trends, knowledge and attitudes among pharmacy and non-pharmacy students. We found that pharmacy students had higher risks of experiencing URIs related symptoms such as cough (RR; 1.7, p = 0.002), allergy (RR; 2.07, p = 0.03) and running nose (RR; 3.17, p<0.005), compared to non-pharmacy students -resulting in higher probabilities of selecting cough syrups (OR; 2.3, p<0.005), anti-histamines (OR; 1.8, p = 0.036) and anti-inflammatory/anti-pyretic (OR; 2.4, p<0.005) drugs. Likewise, bachelor's degree pupils (OR; 2, p = 0.045), urban area residents (OR; 2.44; p = 0.002) and pharmacy students (OR; 2.9, p<0.005) exhibited higher propensities of antibiotic self-use-notable classes include, b-lactams (45.9%) followed by macrolides (26.5%) and augmentin (28.94%), respectively. Surprisingly, pharmacy and non-pharmacy students had higher odds of using antibiotics in common cold (OR; 3.2, p<0.005) and pain (OR; 2.37, p = 0.015), respectively. Unlike non-pharmacy students, pharmacy students were likely to select alternative therapy, such as Joshanda (OR; 2.22, p = 0.011) and were well acquainted with antibiotic hazards, with 77% reduction in risk of antibiotics re-use. In conclusion, university students exhibited antibiotic self-prescribing trends in conditions that does not warrant their use, thus are irrational users. The pharmacy education confers very little benefit to rational self-prescribing practices among students, while non-pharmacy students are more vulnerable to repeated antibiotic usage. Thus, the educational and training modules should be designed for university students to disseminate targeted information regarding the potential hazards of antibiotic self-use and importance of consultation with qualified and registered medical doctor/pharmacist before starting with antibiotics.
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Bacterial contamination of membrane material negatively affects healing after guided tissue regeneration (GTR) procedures; conversely, flap connective tissue integration on barrier material improves the clinical outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical application of antibiotics on: 1) clinical outcomes of GTR surgical procedures using titanium reinforced expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) periodontal membrane; 2) bacterial colonization of membrane material; and 3) flap connective tissue-membrane integration.
A total of 74 different clinical isolates of Branhamella catarrhalis were examined for their ability to produce beta-lactamase by six different beta-lactamase assays. These included a conventional tube and disk test, in which the chromogenic cephalosporin nitrocefin was used as a substrate; a disk procedure, in which pyridinium-2-azo-p-dimethylanaline cephalosporin was used as a substrate; broth and disk acidometric methods; and a conventional tube iodometric assay. A total of 58 of the study isolates produced beta-lactamase. In all cases, positive results were obtained with the nitrocefin tube and disk assays after 1 min. With the pyridinium-2-azo-p-dimethylanaline cephalosporin disk test, 57 of the 58 beta-lactamase-producing strains yielded a positive reaction in 1 min; the remaining strain was positive after 10 min. None of the beta-lactamase-producing strains produced positive reactions by either the broth or disk acidometric methods after 1 min. With the broth test, 10 min was required for positive test results for 42 strains; 30 min was necessary for 16 strains. By the disk acidometric procedure, all 58 strains were positive after 10 min. Of 58 beta-lactamase-producing strains, 30 were positive by the iodometric assay after 1 min, 13 strains required 10 min, and 4 strains were detected as being beta-lactamase positive only after 30 min. One beta-lactamase-producing strain remained negative by the iodometric method. Among the 16 strains of B. catarrhalis that lacked beta-lactamase that were examined in this study, no false-positive results were obtained by any of the six assays.
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Despite the conservative approach followed in terms of ceftriaxone data, both the clinical results and cost-effectiveness supported the use of ceftriaxone in the treatment of CAP in adults in the hospital setting.