Bacteria isolated from respiratory tract infections were collected in cooperation with institutions located throughout Japan, since 1981, and the Ikemotor et al. have been investigating susceptibilities of the isolates of various antibacterial agents and antibiotics, and the relationships between the isolates and backgrounds of the patients and so forth each year. We discuss the results in detail. In 20 institutions around the entire Japan from October 1993 to September 1994, 584 strains of bacteria were isolated mainly from sputa of 473 patients with respiratory tract infections and presumed to be the etiological agents. MICs of various antibacterial agents and antibiotics were determined against 91 strains of Staphylococcus aureus, 98 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 122 strains of Haemophilus influenzae, 91 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (non-mucoid), 34 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (mucoid), 42 strains of Moraxella subgenus Branhamella catarrhalis, 25 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae etc., and the drug susceptibilities of these strains were measured except the strains which died during transportation. 1. S. aureus S. aureus strain sfor which MICs of methicillin was higher than 4 micrograms/ml (methicillin-resistant S. aureus) accounted for 56.0%, but this frequency of the drug resistant bacteria was lower than the previous year's 61.4%. Arbekacin and vancomycin showed the highest activities against MRSA and MIC80s were 1 microgram/ml. 2. S. pneumoniae Benzylpenicillin among the penicillins showed potent activities against S. pneumoniae. Cefuzonam, cefotaxime and cefmenoxime among the cephems showed excellent antimicrobial activities against S. pneumoniae. Imipenem; carbapenems, showed the most potent activity, and MIC90 was 0.063 microgram/ml. 3. H. influenzae All the drugs tested were quite active against H. influenzae. Cefotaxime, cefmenoxime, cefuzonam and cefixime among the cephems showed the most potent activities, and MIC90 were 0.063 microgram/ml against H. influenzae. Ofloxacin also showed MIC90 of 0.063 microgram/ml. 4. P. aeruginosa (mucoid) Tobramycin showed the most potent activity against P. aeruginosa (mucoid), and MIC80 was 1 microgram/ml. Ceftazidime, cefsulodin, imipenem, aztreonam, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin showed potent activities with MIC80s of 2 micrograms/ml. 5. P. aeruginosa (non-mucoid) Tobramycin showed the highest activity against P. aeruginosa (non-mucoid), and MIC80 was 1 microgram/ml, followed by ciprofloxacin with MIC80 of 2 micrograms/ml. Comparing to activities against P. aeruginosa (mucoid), all the drugs tested had relatively low activities against P. aeruginosa (non-mucoid). 6. K. pneumoniae. The activities of all drugs except ampicillin and minocycline were high against K. pneumoniae. Cefozopran, imipenem and carumonam showed the highest activities and MIC80s were 0.125 microgram/ml. Flomoxef showed the next highest activities with an MIC80 of 0.25 microgram/ml. 7. M.(B.) catarrhalis Imipenem showed the most potent activity against M.(B.) catarrhalis, with an MIC80 of 0.063 microgram/ml, followed minocycline and ofloxacin with their MIC80s of 0.125 microgram/ml. We also investigated year to year changes in the background of patients, as well as types of respiratory infectious diseases, and the etiological agents. As for patients background, there were many infectious diseases found among patients a high age bracket, and the patients over age 60 accounted for 61.3% of the diseases. The distribution by respiratory tract infections was as follows: chronic bronchitis and bacterial pneumonia accounted for the greatest numbers of cases with 31.1% and 26.0%, respectively, followed by bronchiectasis with 10.4%. In this year chronic bronchitis under age 29 were 41.7%, thus was much higher than 12.5% in previous year. This marked change was first noted in your research during the recent 5 years. As for frequencies of etiologic bacteria by respiratory tract infections, S. pneumoniae (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
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The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of Clostridium difficile diarrhea (CDD) and the risk for CDD associated with different oral antibiotics commonly used in the ambulatory care setting.
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Nineteen (31%) of the 61 S. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to penicillin. A significantly lower percentage of the S. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to azithromycin (16%) and clarithromycin (11%) than to penicillin, amoxicillin/ clavulanate, cefaclor, loracarbef or cefixime (31% in all cases). Azithromycin was also more active than cefaclor and significantly more active than clarithromycin against the 55 H. influenzae isolates.
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The activity of the new oral cephalosporin Bay v 3522 was compared to that of six other beta-lactam agents. Bay v 3522 inhibited methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis at less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml, compared to MICs of greater than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml for the other cephalosporins tested. It was more active against Streptococcus pyogenes (MIC less than or equal to 0.06 microgram/ml) than cefuroxime, cefixime, cephalexin and cefaclor. Groups B, C and G streptococci were inhibited at less than or equal to 0.12 microgram/ml, while the MI"90 for Streptococcus bovis and viridans streptococci was 0.5 and 2 micrograms/ml, respectively. The MIC90 for enterococci and Listeria monocytogenes was 8 micrograms/ml. Clostridium perfringens was inhibited by 0.12 microgram/ml, but most Bacteroides spp. were resistant. The MIC90 for beta-lactamase positive Escherichia coli (producing primarily TEM-1) was greater than 64 micrograms/ml and for beta-lactamase negative strains 16 micrograms/ml. The MIC90 for high-level beta-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was greater than 64 micrograms/ml versus 4 micrograms/ml for other isolates. The MIC90 for Moraxella catarrhalis was 2 micrograms/ml, for Haemophilus influenzae 1 micrograms/ml, and for Neisseria gonorrhoeae 4 micrograms/ml. Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resistant. Bay v 3522 was destroyed by TEM-1, SHV-1, TEM-3 and P99 beta-lactamases.
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Retrospective laboratory based survey analysing susceptibility patterns of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates providing from urines collected from outpatients during three months in 2013.
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Despite receiving HIV/STI prevention services, bacterial STIs remain prevalent among FSWs suggesting the need for more effective management of STIs. The guidelines for management of STIs need revision in view of the emerging resistance.
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A retrospective study was conducted on infants<3 months of age with positive urinalysis results, together with a positive urine culture from a catheterized specimen and seen in the Emergency Department from 2007 to 2012. Demographics, clinical and microbiology (microorganism isolated and antibiotic susceptibility) data were collected. The complications rate (bacteremia, bacterial meningitis, renal abscess, surgical intervention, Intensive Care Unit admission, or death) were calculated for the overall sample and for different age groups (<29, 29-60, and 61-90 days).
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Antibiotic resistance in N gonorrhoeae was usually uniform within a given sequence type. Therefore the sequence type of an isolate allows the presence of antibiotic resistance to be predicted with a high degree of accuracy. Further studies on the geographical variation and temporal stability of antibiotic susceptibility patterns within sequence types are required.