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The study involved a 24-month retrospective analysis of patients with claims for asthma treatment (primary diagnosis International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision code of 493.xx) between January 1, 1997, and June 30, 2000, and at least I outpatient pharmaceutical claim for fluticasone propionate (44 microg) or montelukast (5 or 10 mg). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the probability of asthma-related hospitalizations and switching or augmenting to another therapy, asthma costs, and total health care costs. Sensitivity analyses were conducted by replicating all of the analyses by age strata (ages 4-17 years and > or = 18 years) and varying lengths of follow-up.
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A one-year-old, castrated male domestic short hair cat was admitted with a history of anorexia, regurgitation and pyrexia for two days. Fever and leukocytosis were identified. There were a large soft tissue density oval mass in the caudal mediastinum on thoracic radiographs, a fluid-filled oval mass in the caudal mediastinum on ultrasonography, and left-sided and ventrally displaced and compressed esophagus on esophagram. On esophageal endoscopy, there were no esophageal abnormalities. CT findings with a fluid filled mass with rim enhancement indicated a caudal mediastinal paraesophageal abscess. The patient was treated with oral antibiotics, because the owner declined percutaneous drainage and surgery. The patient was admitted on emergency with severe respiratory distress; and ruptured abscess and deteriorated pleuropneumonia were suspected. With intensive hospitalization care and additional antibiotic therapy, the patient had full recovery.
The study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence of Moraxella catarrhalis in patients with respiratory tract infections. Overall 514 specimens including 370 throat swabs and 114 sputum specimens were examined. The 78 strains isolated basing on morphological and biochemical characteristics were classified as Moraxella catarrhalis. The sensitivity of the strains to antibiotics was also estimated. The frequency of M. catarrhalis isolation from the throat swabs (15.9%) was higher than from the sputum (13.2%). Selected 25 specimens of sputum were tested simultaneously by quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative method was more sensitive (84% positive findings) than qualitative method (60% positive findings). Resistance to ampicillin was found in 52 (66.7%) strains of M. catarrhalis determined mainly by beta-lactamase production (over 70% strains were producers of beta-lactamase). All strains were sensitive to ofloxacin and amoxycillin/clavulanic acid combination. The frequency of M. catarrhalis isolation was higher in autumn-winter period than in summer (May-September). We conclude that M. catarrhalis, beside Streptococcus pyogenes (20.2%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (17.1%), are the most frequently isolated bacteria in patients with respiratory tract infections.
Plasma oxalate concentration increases during oral administration of beta-lactame antibiotics caused by increased intestinal absorption, as a result of saprophytic microflora deterioration. However intravewous administration of the same antibiotics does not change the concentration of plasma oxalate.
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Eight patients, four from each treatment arm, were found to have asymptomatic UTIs from their MSU before biopsy. Excluding these patients, four patients (11%) from Group 1 and six from Group 2 (16%) had positive MSUs at 72 h; two patients from Group 2 and one from Group 1 required admission to hospital. Of the patients returning symptom and temperature charts, a further six (14%; three from each group) reported signs and symptoms suggestive of infection despite negative urine cultures.
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The overall detection rate of S. enteritidis was 23.3% (n=35), while an increased detection rate of S. enteritidis was found in the chicken breast tissue (n=9; 30%). When antibiogram was tested for S. enteritidis against common antibiotics, increased resistance to ampicillin (n=29; 82.2%), tetracycline (n=28; 80%), augmentin (n=27; 77.14%), and chloramphenicol (n=19; 54.2%) was observed. Multidrug resistance was reported in 54.8% (n=19) of the S. enteritidis isolates, while 20% (n=07) of isolates were extensively drug resistant.
To compare the safety and efficacy, in treating acute otitis media (AOM) in children, of a new formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium (Augmentin) oral suspension providing 45/6.4 mg/kg/day and administered twice daily (bid) for 5 and 10 days, respectively, with the safety and efficacy of the original formulation providing 40/10 mg/kg/day and administered three times daily (tid) for 10 days.
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This study aims to determine the asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy due to GBS and its antimicrobial sensitivity pattern for planning strategy for the management of these cases and also to determine the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria. A total of 3863 consecutive urine specimens were collected from 3863 pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria attending the obstetrics and gynaecology department of our hospital over a period of two years. Specimens were processed using standard microbiological procedures. All the subjects were evaluated for bacteriuria. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria due to group B streptococci (GBS) was 82/3863 (2.1%) among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. Among these, 69/82 patients (84.2%) had clinical and microbiological features consistent with cystitis, versus 13/82 (15.8%) for pyelonephritis. About 51.2% (42/82) of the patients who had urine analysis performed had positive results based on positive urinary leucocyte esterase and pyuria. Disc-diffusion analysis of all 82 GBS isolates showed that they were highly susceptible to Augmentin and linezolid. Screening for bacteriuria in pregnancy and proper treatment must be considered as an essential part of antenatal care in this community. To prevent asymptomatic bacteriuria complications, all pregnant women should be screened at the first antenatal visit. A negative test for pyuria is not a reliable indicator of the absence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. Further, ongoing surveillance and evaluation of outcomes in pregnancies complicated by GBS bacteriuria is required to optimise maternal and newborn care.