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Streptococcus pneumoniae strains are exhibiting increasing rates of antibiotics resistance. A rapid increase of resistance was seen not only to penicillin but also other antimicrobial agents and therefore this paper describes the study of resistance and multiresistance of pneumococci to 7 antibiotics: penicillin (P), erythromycin (E), clindamycin (CC), tetracycline (T), co-trimoxazole (SXT), cefotaxime (CTX) and vancomycin (Va), using the disk-diffusion technique according to NCCLS procedure. We tested a total of 218 S. pneumoniae strains isolated from various materials: from sputum (54), noses (117), throats (28) and different swabs specimens (19). The overall percentage of resistant isolates to penicillin was 3.7%, to erythromycin--4.1%, to clindamycin--10.6%, to tetracycline--17.4%, to co-trimoxazole--15.6%, to cefotaxime--2.3%. In the sputum was most the monoresistant strains (66.7%). The multiresistance was highest in the penicillin resistant pneumococci. With the exception of vancomycin, the number of resistant strains to non-beta-lactam antibiotics (erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, co-trimoxazole) was higher in penicillin-resistant strains compared with penicillin susceptible isolates. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin.
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Adults with dual tuberculosis (TB) and HIV infection have a poor outcome. Studies in West Africa suggest that cotrimoxazole prophylaxis may reduce this mortality.
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Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic emergent pathogen causing hospital-acquired infections. It is resistant to majority of the broad spectrum antibiotics due to several mechanisms which significantly limit the treatment options. Although the relationship between integrons, mobile genetic elements which play role in transferring resistance genes, and the antibiotic resistance in different gram-negative bacteria have been investigated, the data are limited in Turkey especially for S.maltophilia. The aims of this study were to detect the presence of different classes of integrons and plasmids in clinical isolates of S.maltophilia and to investigate the antibiotic resistance profiles of those isolates. One hundred S.maltophilia strains isolated from various clinical samples (32 sputum, 25 tracheal aspirates, 9 urine and blood, 7 exudates and catheters, 4 sterile body fluids and wounds, 2 CSF, 1 conjunctiva) in our microbiology laboratory during January 2011-September 2012, were included in the study. The isolates were identified by VITEK2 Compact (BioMerieux, France) or Phoenix 100 (BD, USA) automatized systems, and the susceptibilities of the strains to levofloxacin, chloramphenicol, ceftazidime and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazol (SXT) were evaluated via broth microdilution method according to the CLSI recommendations. Class 1 (intI-1), class 2 (intI-2), class 3 (intI-3) integron gene cassettes and integron 5'-3' conserved gene regions (intI-5'-3'CS) were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers in all of the strains. Nucleotide sequence analysis of PCR products was performed in case of positive result, and the presence and size of plasmids were further investigated. The susceptibility rates of S.maltophilia strains to ceftazidime, chloramphenicol, SXT and levofloxacin were found as 24%, 66%, 93% and 95%, respectively, while MIC(50) and MIC(90) values were 64-128 µg/ml, 8-16 µg/ml, 1/19-2/38 µg/ml and 1-2 µg/ml, respectively. In PCR amplification with intI-1, intI-2 and intI-3 primers, 12%, 2% and 10% of the isolates yielded expectative bands, respectively. DNA sequence analysis of the amplified products revealed five isolates to harbour intI-1 gene, while intI class 2 and class 3 genes were not detected in any of the strains. Furthermore in PCR amplification with intI-5'CS and 3'CS primers, 20% of the strains yielded expected bands. Sequence analysis of these amplicons revealed the presence of quaternary ammonium compound resistance protein genes (qacL) in two, aminoglycoside adenyltransferase gene (aadA) in one and integron-associated recombination site (attI1) genes in five strains. Additionally, the presence of plasmids have been detected in 9 (9%) of the strains, however all of them was integron-negative. The sizes of plasmids were 2340, 1350, 2760, 18600, 20000, 3570-2540, 2510 and 5000-2540 base pairs, respectively. When the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of strains were compared with the presence of intI gene regions, no statistically significant relationship was observed (p> 0.05). In conclusion, the demonstration of integron class 1 genes and plasmids among clinical S.maltophilia strains is regarded as a warning data to indicate the potential for spread of those resistant strains in our hospital.
Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) is the recommended first-line treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP).However, in June 2010, the lone manufacturer of intravenous (IV) TMP/SMX in the United States stopped production of this medication.
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High-dose corticosteroids in combination with cytotoxic drugs are universally accepted as the initial approach in vasculitides that are associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. Cyclophosphamide is the most effective cytotoxic drug and is used in more severe cases. Because cyclophosphamide has more severe short- and long-term side-effects than methotrexate, methotrexate is used in less severe cases. New prospects for the treatment of vasculitis include novel immunosuppressive agents (e.g. mycophenolate, 15-deoxyspergualin, and leflunomide), sequential chemotherapy (e.g. cyclophosphamide followed by azathioprine or cyclophosphamide followed by methotrexate), intravenous immunoglobulin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha directed therapy, anti-lymphocyte directed therapy (e.g. antithymocyte globulin or anti CD52/anti CD4 antibodies), anti-adhesion molecule directed therapy (e.g. anti-CD18 or intercellular adhesion molecule-1 antisense) or immunoablation using high-dose cytotoxic medication with or without stem cell rescue.
Listeria monocytogenes emerged as an important foodborne pathogen in the latter part of the 20th century. Clinical syndromes caused by this microorganism include sepsis in the immunocompromised patient, meningoencephalitis in infants and adults, and febrile gastroenteritis. Focal infections at other sites are less frequent. Listeria species are commonly found in raw and unprocessed food products. Major outbreaks of listeriosis, with high morbidity and mortality, have been caused by a variety of foods, including soft cheeses, delicatessen meats, and vegetable products. Improved detection methods, dietary recommendations, and, in some cases, preemptive antibiotic treatment or prophylaxis have reduced the incidence of sporadic listeriosis infections in the United States. Microbial virulence factors distinguishing environmental strains of L. monocytogenes from invasive strains causing foodborne illness and host factors promoting human infection remain incompletely understood.
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Brucella meningitis must be ruled out in symptomatic patients reporting ingestion of raw unpasteurized goat's milk. Papilledema is a frequent clinical feature, but irreversible visual impairment is extremely rare.
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Hypersensitivity reactions to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole occur with a high frequency in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. This study tested whether differences in oxidative metabolism and plasma reductive capacity correlate with sulfonamide intolerance in patients with HIV. Eighteen stable outpatients with HIV were prospectively studied. Nine patients had documented histories of hypersensitivity reactions to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and nine did not. Urinary caffeine metabolite ratios assessed the activity of two oxidative enzymatic pathways: cytochrome P-450 1A2 (demethylation) and 8-hydroxylation. Plasma cyst(e)ine was used as a measure of reductive capacity. The trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-intolerant group showed greater rates of 8-hydroxylation, lower rates of demethylation, and lower cyst(e)ine levels. The results of this pilot study extend previous observations of differences in oxidative metabolism and reductive capacity that exist within the population of HIV-infected individuals. In addition, these findings lay the groundwork for future interventional studies that could use agents to inhibit sulfonamide oxidation and increase reductive capacity in sulfonamide-intolerant patients with HIV when rechallenged with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.
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Adverse drug reactions to trimethoprim-sulphonamide combinations are common in many species, manifesting as gastrointestinal tract disorders, dermatopathies and blood dyscrasias. In this case series, neurological abnormalities in 4 horses being treated with trimethoprim-sulphonamide combinations at normal dosages and in one foal that received an overdose are described. The horses developed hypermetric gait, agitation and erratic behaviour. All signs resolved once medication was withdrawn, and no horse had residual deficits. No other cause for observed neurological deficits could be determined. These clinical signs appear to represent a novel adverse drug reaction to some commonly used antimicrobial combinations.
Seventy-one strains of Serratia marcescens obtained from hospitalized patients of the Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion in Mexico City and two Virginia hospitals (University of Virginia Medical Center and Norfolk General Hospital) were analyzed to find markers useful for the epidemiologic investigation of outbreaks with this organism. Biotyping with commercial microwell systems (API 20# system [Analytab Products, Plainview, N.Y.] and DMS Rapid NFT [DMS Laboratories, Inc., Flemington, N.J.]) was not useful. Biotyping with the system designed by Grimont (assimilation tests, pigment production, and the ability to reduce tetrathionate broth) was helpful to characterize all strains. Of the 37 Mexican strains, 36 belonged to biogroup A 5/8 and 32 were biotype A8b. The 34 strains from the Virginia hospitals were distributed among six different biogroups and 12 biotypes. Significant differences in antimicrobial susceptibility (50% MIC, microgram/ml) between Mexican and Virginia strains were seen with carbenicillin (256 versus 8), piperacillin (64 versus 4), amikacin (16 versus 2), gentamicin (2 versus 0.5), and tobramycin (16 versus 2). Some Mexican strains showed variability in the susceptibility to amikacin because they were low producers of 6'-N-acetyltransferase type I. The Mexican strains seemed to come from a hospital with cross-infection problems because most were isolated from urine, were multiresistant, and more nonpigmented; in contrast, the strains isolated at University of Virginia Medical Center represent the experience of a hospital with scattered S. marcescens infections. The Grimont biotyping scheme is a useful epidemiologic tool for the clinical microbiologist.
We present a case of late acute myopia syndrome following discontinuation of treatment with a combination of sulphonamide drugs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case with such a presentation, and suggests that the pathophysiological basis for the acute myopia syndrome is a rapid decrease in serum carbonic anhydrase inhibitors levels which may lead to a rebound increase in the production of aqueous humor and accumulation of suprachoroidal fluid. It is further postulated that there may be a cumulative effect of sulphonamide drug use on carbonic anhydrase activity in the ciliary body epithelium of susceptible individuals.
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The objective of the investigation was to determine the comparative efficacy of cefotaxime versus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the prophylaxis of patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures. In this prospective randomized open study, 780 adult patients undergoing elective craniotomy, shunt surgery or stereotactic surgery were randomized to receive preoperative cefotaxime (1 g) or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (160 mg trimethoprim, 800 mg sulfamethoxazole) as prophylaxis: 613 patients were available for analysis, of whom 315 received cefotaxime and 298 received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Forty-two patients (6.9%) experienced 49 postoperative infections, with no significant difference between treatment groups. The most common infections unrelated to neurosurgery were urinary tract infections (17 cases) and pneumonia (seven cases). Fifteen neurosurgical infections occurred, comprising 11 wound infections, two shunt infections and two cerebral abscesses. Neurosurgical infection rates were similar in the cefotaxime group (2.5%) and the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole group (2.3%). We concluded cefotaxime and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole administered as single dose prior to neurosurgery are equally effective in controlling neurosurgical infection and postoperative infection at remote sites.