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Of 336 patients enrolled, 277 (82%) were eligible for the efficacy analysis, 186 (67%) were male, 175 (63%) were enrolled at African sites, 206 (74%) had cavitation on chest radiograph, and 60 (22%) had HIV infection. Two-month cultures were negative in 71% of patients (99 of 139) treated with moxifloxacin versus 71% (98 of 138) treated with ethambutol (p = 0.97). Patients receiving moxifloxacin, however, more often had negative cultures after 4 wk of treatment. Patients treated with moxifloxacin more often reported nausea (22 vs. 9%, p = 0.002), but similar proportions completed study treatment (88 vs. 89%). Dosing frequency had little effect on 2-mo culture status or tolerability of therapy.
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To estimate the risk of drug resistance among foreign-born TB patients and to identify risk factors associated with drug resistance.
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OBJECTIVE To describe the epidemiology, clinical features, health care resource use, treatment and outcomes of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases diagnosed in Western Australia, compared with matched controls with drug-susceptible TB.
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Clarithromycin, rifabutin and azithromycin given as primary prophylaxis can diminish the risk of disseminated MAC-infection. Although a survival benefit has been seen with clarithromycin, primary prophylaxis of MAC-infection is not standard care in many centers. Reasons to withhold MAC-prophylaxis include lower incidence rates in some countries as well as possible side effects and drug interactions.
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Intussusception is the most common cause of intestinal obstruction in children, with a peak in children 5 to 7 months of age. Identifiable causes are found in 90% of adults, whereas in infants and young children the majority are idiopathic. We report a case of abdominal tuberculosis (ATB) presenting as an ileocolic intussusception in an infant. A 6-month-old infant presented with features of acute intestinal obstruction. Peroperatively, ileocolic intussusception was found. Histological examination revealed caseating epitheloid cell granulomas with positivity for acid-fast bacilli. Only 3 cases of ATB presenting as intussusception have been previously reported in the literature, with only 1 case presenting in a child. This appears to be the 2nd case of ATB presenting as an intussusception in a child and also in an infant. Tuberculosis should also be kept in the differential diagnosis of lead point of intussusception, even in the age group in which most cases are idiopathic, especially in endemic areas.
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Patients with clinical infections caused by the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are treated for at least 1 year following sputum conversion with a regimen that suffers from a suboptimal cure rate. The correlation between clinical outcome and drug susceptibility testing breakpoints other than for the macrolides is regarded to be poor. A systematic evaluation of clinical breakpoints for MAC has not been performed so far; thus, the aim of this study was to initiate the process by establishing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions.
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In this case the spontaneous regression after the third relapse may represent better control of the ulcerative colitis. An infection seems less likely retrospectively.
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A 46-year-old woman developed a right pleural effusion 8 weeks after standard chemotherapy for tuberculous pleurisy on the left side had been started. Pleural biospy demonstrated caseous granulomatous changes. The patient improved following continuation of the same treatment.