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One trial involving 1071 women was included. Of these, 644 randomly received antibiotic treatment (174 erythromycin estolate, 224 erythromycin sterate, and 246 clindamycin hydrochloride) and 427 received placebo. This trial did not report data on preterm birth. Incidence of low birthweight less than 2500 grams was only evaluated for erythromycin (combined) (n = 398 ) compared to placebo (n = 427) and there was no statistically significant difference between those treated and those not treated (relative risk (RR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 1.07). In regards to side-effects sufficient to stop treatment, data were available for all women, and there were no statistically significant differences between any antibiotic (combined) and the placebo group (RR 1.25, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.85).
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Sectrophotometric analysis was used to determine the dissolution percentage of the tablets in vitro. High performance liquid chromatography and IBM/XT microcomputer was used to determine the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic parameters in vivo.
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Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular parasite responsible for many clinical syndromes, including neonatal conjunctivitis and pneumonia. The gold standard of diagnosis has been isolation in cell culture. However, this requires days of processing. Several rapid diagnostic tests are available. Giemsa staining of conjunctival smears, enzyme immunoassay, and the fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody test. Both the EIA and the FA tests show promise as ideal rapid diagnostic tests. Treatment of chlamydial conjunctivitis must focus upon the eradication of nasopharyngeal carriage as well as cure of ophthalmic symptoms. The need for nasopharyngeal eradication is underscored by the fact that it is the source for chlamydial pneumonia as well as for conjunctival re-infection. Clinical studies have shown that oral erythromycin estolate or ethylsuccinate suspension 50 mg/kg/day twice-daily or four times a day for 14 to 21 days are the therapeutic regimens of choice. Neonatal ocular prophylaxis is currently under study. One per cent silver nitrate does not prevent chlamydial conjunctivitis but preliminary studies do show favorable results with topical erythromycin. Nevertheless, neither 1 per cent silver nitrate nor topical erythromycin eradicate nasopharyngeal carriage, elimination of which is necessary for the prevention of neonatal chlamydial pneumonia.
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The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the pharmacokinetic properties of different formulations of erythromycin in dogs. Erythromycin was administered as lactobionate (10 mg/kg, IV), estolate tablets (25 mg/kg p.o.) and ethylsuccinate tablets or suspension (20 mg/kg p.o.). After intravenous (i.v.) administration, the principal pharmacokinetic parameters were (mean +/- SD): AUC((0-infinity)) 4.20 +/- 1.66 microg x h/mL; C(max) 6.64 +/- 1.38 microg/mL; V(z) 4.80 +/- 0.91 L/kg; Cl(t) 2.64 +/- 0.84 L/h.kg; t((1/2)lambda) 1.35 +/- 0.40 h and MRT 1.50 +/- 0.47 h. After the administration of estolate tablets and ethylsuccinate suspension, the principal pharmacokinetic parameters were (mean +/- SD): C(max), 0.30 +/- 0.17 and 0.17 +/- 0.09 microg/mL; t(max), 1.75 +/- 0.76 and 0.69 +/- 0.30 h; t((1/2)lambda), 2.92 +/- 0.79 and 1.53 +/- 1.28 h and MRT, 5.10 +/- 1.12 and 2.56 +/- 1.77 h, respectively. The administration of erythromycin ethylsuccinate tablets did not produce measurable serum concentrations. Only the i.v. administration rendered serum concentrations above MIC(90) = 0.5 microg/mL for 2 h. However, these results should be cautiously interpreted as tissue erythromycin concentrations have not been measured in this study and, it is recognized that they can reach much higher concentrations than in blood, correlating better with clinical efficacy.
In this work, the producing of a biodegradable poly(l-lactide) (PLA)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) microcapsule by emulsion solvent evaporation method was investigated. The effect of PEG segments added to the PLA microcapsules on the degradation, size distribution, and release behavior was studied. According to the results, PLA/PEG copolymer was more hydrophilic than PLA homopolymer, and with lower glass transition temperature. The surface of PLA/PEG microcapsules was not as smooth as that of PLA microcapsules, the mean diameters of prepared PLA and PLA/PEG microcapsules were 40 and 57 microm, respectively. And spherical forms were observed by the image analyzer and the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Drug release from microcapsules was affected by the properties of PLA/PEG copolymers determined by UV-vis spectra. It was found that the drug release rates of the microcapsules were significantly increased with adding of PEG, which explained by increasing hydrophilic groups.
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All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of antibiotics for treatment of, and contact prophylaxis against, whooping cough.
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The use of antibiotics in pregnancy requires that the clinician consider both toxicity to and pharmacokinetics for mother and fetus. Although most adverse reactions to antibiotics in the adult are not modified by pregnancy, those to tetracycline and erythromycin estolate are the exceptions. Tetracycline is contraindicated throughout pregnancy because of fetal effects, whereas sulfa preparations, trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol are contraindicated only at specific times during gestation. The pharmacokinetics of antibiotics in the mother are such that lower serum concentrations are achieved for a given dose, which may be important in serious or resistant infections. Fetal kinetics are such that transfer to amniotic fluid and distribution within the fetus may not provide adequate protection for the fetus in cases of chorioamnionitis.
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Although universal immunization against Bordetella pertussis (whooping cough) infection has resulted in dramatic reductions in the incidence of pertussis, outbreaks continue to occur in countries with excellent vaccine coverage. Treatment of infection may ameliorate symptom severity during the catarrhal phase of pertussis but has no effect on established paroxysms, emesis, or apnea if given during the paroxysmal or convalescent phases. Erythromycin, recommended for treatment of pertussis to prevent transmission of infection, is poorly tolerated because of gastrointestinal side effects. We compared the safety and efficacy of erythromycin with azithromycin for treatment of pertussis in a large, randomized, controlled trial that enrolled children from primary care practices in 1 American and 11 Canadian urban centers.
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The failure rate in this study is unacceptably high for erythromycin to be used as a sterilization method.
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To investigate the mechanisms of erythromycin cholestasis, the effects of erythromycin estolate (EE) on the excretory function of the isolated perfused rat liver and on liver plasma membrane (LM) preparations were studied and compared to those of erythromycin base (EB) and lauryl sulfate (LS), added alone or in combination. EE (at 125 to 200 microM) caused dose-dependent reductions of bile and perfusate flows, bile acid (BA) excretion, and biliary BA concentration. The alterations of the excretory function were only in part due to the decreased perfusate flow. In contrast, both 200 and 300 microM concentrations of EB elicited similar choleretic responses, which were presumably related to the osmotic activity of the drug excreted in the bile. LS did not affect hepatic excretory functions. However, the simultaneous addition of EB and LS resulted in a rate of bile flow lower than that observed with EB alone. EE, but not EB, increased canalicular permeability to [14C]sucrose as measured by bile to plasma (B:P) ratio. Neither drugs altered [14C]erythritol B:P ratio. In LM preparations both Na+,K+- and Mg2+-ATPase activities were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by EE, but not by EB. The data suggest that EE could affect bile flow by inhibiting cotransport of Na+ and BA and by altering LM permeability and support the view that the effect of erythromycins on the liver may be related to their surface activity.