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In children with acute sinusitis, proven nasopharyngeal colonization with S pneumoniae at presentation independently predicted time to symptom resolution. Future randomized, placebo-controlled trials could investigate the usefulness of testing for the presence of nasopharyngeal pathogens as a predictor of response to treatment.
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A total of 91 consecutive episodes of febrile neutropenia in 58 children were included in the study. For patients of group A, treatment failure rate was 51.2%; the mean length of hospital stay was 8 days (range 2-10 days). For patients treated with intravenous antibiotic therapy, treatment failure rate was 45.8%; the mean length of hospital stay was 7 days (range 3-10 days).
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S. pneumoniae sinus isolates (N = 847) collected as part of the Tracking Resistance in the US Today Surveillance Program from 2001 to 2005 were tested against 8 antimicrobial agents.
Cavitary lung lesions in patients from developing countries are mostly caused by tuberculosis (TB). However, when TB cannot be confirmed, a primary lung abscess caused by anaerobic bacteria from the mouth should be considered, especially in patients with poor dentition. We present a case of a Sudanese woman with a cavitary lung lesion and severe gingivitis. Bulleidia extructa was isolated as a single pathogen from the pulmonary cavity.
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The objective of this investigation was to assess retrospectively the safety and the efficacy of oral ciprofloxacin plus cefuroxime axetil compared to the combination of oral ciprofloxacin plus amoxicillin/clavulanate, as initial outpatient treatment, in low-risk cancer patients with fever and neutropenia. We analysed retrospectively 120 episodes of febrile neutropenia, treated on an outpatient basis at 2 different oncology units; 63 episodes were treated with the oral regimen of ciprofloxacin plus amoxicillin/clavulanate and 57 were treated with the combination of oral ciprofloxacin plus cefuroxime. 20 treatment failures were recorded-2 of them among patients receiving ciprofloxacin plus amoxicillin/clavulanate and 18 in the ciprofloxacin plus cefuroxime group. Univariate analysis showed that the administration of ciprofloxacin plus cefuroxime was associated with a worse outcome compared to the regimen ciprofloxacin plus amoxicillin/clavulanate (OR 11, CI 2.42-49.9, p =0.002). In the multivariate model, after adjusting for the absolute number of neutrophils and the duration of neutropenia, the effect of the antibiotic regimen on the outcome disappeared, and no significant differences between the 2 regimens were noted, although the regimen of ciprofloxacin plus cefuroxime was associated with a trend to a worse outcome (OR 4.74, CI 0.72-31.1, p =0.10). In conclusion, the 2 regimens appeared equally safe and effective but prospective studies are needed to confirm these results.
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The study subjects consisted of 54 patients infected with H. pylori, in whom initial triple therapy had failed. Subjects were randomized to receive the following 7-day therapies: (i) pantoprazole 40 mg b.i.d., tripotassium dicitrate bismuthate 300 mg q.i.d., amoxicillin-clavulanate 1000 mg b.i.d., and tetracycline 500 mg q.i.d. (PBAT); or (ii) pantoprazole 40 mg b.i.d., tripotassium dicitrate bismuthate 300 mg q.i.d., metronidazole 500 mg t.i.d., and tetracycline 500 mg q.i.d. (PBMT). Eradication rates based on antibiotic susceptibility, drug compliance and side-effect rates were evaluated and compared.
Retrospective review of clinical charts of neonates admitted for UTI. Patients were treated first intravenously with a beta-lactam antibiotic and gentamicin. Treatment was completed orally.
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This study has shown that some of the Listeria isolates were resistant to most common antimicrobial agents except gentamycin and disinfectant A. Hence the need to consider this resistance pattern for effective treatment and control of listeriosis.
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71 patients were included. There were two (5.2%) blood cultures positive in group A and three (9%) in group B. Organisms isolated were S. pneumoniae (n=3) and H. influenzae-b (n=2). There was only one treatment failure in each of the groups. One was due to penicillin resistant H. influenzae -b and the other was due to worsening of pneumonia. The mean time taken for normalization of tachypnea, hypoxia, chest wall indrawing and inability to feed was similar (P-N.S). Mean duration of IV therapy in group A was 76+/-25 hrs and group B was 75+/-24 hrs (p>0.1).
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Sixty Jordanian women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) were studied. Of these, 31 were given oral amoxycillin/clavulanic acid (augmentin) for a mean duration of 8.4 days and 29 were given a standard triple drug regimen of oral ampicillin, intramuscular gentamicin and metronidazole tablets/pessaries for a mean duration of 7.2 days. Bacterial culture (cervical and high vaginal swabs) was positive in every case, most often E. coli but sometimes more than one pathogen was isolated. No gonococci were isolated and tests for chlamydia in 16 patients (8 in each group) were negative, suggesting a dissociation between the etiology of PID and sexually transmitted disease in this Jordanian study. After 3 days of treatment, more patients in group I (augmentin) showed diminution of symptoms of pain and discharge (P less than or equal to 0.05) compared to group II. At the end of treatment, complete cure or satisfactory improvement was recorded in 93.1% and 92.9% of cases in the two groups, corresponding to in vitro bacterial efficacy of 90.4% and 96.5%, respectively. No serious side effects were noted in either regimen. The results of this comparative study suggest that oral amoxycillin/clavulanic acid (augmentin) may be a convenient alternative to the triple drug regimen usually administered for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease.