The role of metronidazole, vancomycin, fidaxomicin, rifaximin, nitizoxanide, tigecycline, fusidic acid, LFF-571, cardazolid, SMT 19969, CamSA and surotomycin were reviewed.
Minimal inhibition concentrations (MICs) were determined for linezolid (LZD) and compared with those of reference antibiotics against 265 anaerobes. For the Bacteroides fragilis group, MIC range for LZD was 2-4 mg/l. Strains resistant to the other antibiotics were detected including one strain of B. fragilis showing high level resistance to metronidazole (64 mg/l). LZD MIC(50) was 4 mg/l for prevotella and 1 mg/l for fusobacteria. LZD MICs were <1 mg/l for porphyromonas and veillonellae and =4 mg/l for all Gram-positive anaerobes. For all anaerobes, resistance rates were 1, 2.4, 9.8 and 17% for imipenem, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, metronidazole and clindamycin, respectively. As no strains resistant to LZD were detected, this antibiotic seems a promising candidate to treat infections caused by anaerobes.
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Both the groups showed 100% clinical success whereas, radiographic success rate was 81% with 3 Mix and 92% with Other Mix but, was not statistically significant.
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Propolis was more effective than TAM against E. faecalis at a 2-day time period, and both were equally effective at 7 days.
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背景与目的 乏氧是实体肿瘤的一个重要生物学特征，组织乏氧导致肿瘤对放疗和化疗不敏感，从而增加其对放化疗的抵抗性，因此确定肿瘤组织乏氧程度具有重要意义。核医学乏氧显像能够反映肿瘤组织乏氧程度，他能选择性地滞留在乏氧细胞或组织中，主要包括硝基咪唑类和非硝基咪唑类；其中硝基咪唑类肿瘤乏氧细胞显像剂是国内外研究的较多并且具有发展前景的一类用于肿瘤治疗的药物。本研究应用放射性核素标记技术对研制具有临床应用价值的肿瘤乏氧显像剂乙二胺四乙酸-甲硝唑酯（ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-metronidazole, EDTA-MN）配体进行标记。探讨采用氯化亚锡还原法法进行99mTc标记的可行性，评价99mTc-EDTA-MN的放化特性，观察99mTc-EDTA-MN在非小细胞肺癌（non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC）裸鼠模型体内的生物学分布特点，为其进一步研究与应用提供实验依据。方法 采用氯化亚锡还原法进行EDTA-MN配体的99mTc标记，分别对反应量（10 mg、5 mg、2 mg）、氯化亚锡用量（8 mg/mL、4 mg/mL、2 mg/mL）、标记体系pH（2、4、5、6）逐一进行试验，采用正交试验设计进行分析，以寻找最佳标记条件。采用纸层析法和高效液相色谱法测定标记率、放化纯度、脂水分配系数及室温下在生理盐水的体外稳定性，并对标记物在裸鼠体内的生物学分布进行初步显像研究。结果 最佳标记条件下的标记率（84.11±2.83）%，放射化学纯度大于90%，室温下放置12 h在生理盐水中较稳定。脂水分配系数为lgP=-3.05。尾静脉注射99mTc-EDTA-MN 的3 h内，裸鼠肿瘤模型初步显像示0.5 h时膀胱区域见大量放射性浓聚，1 h时肿瘤显影清晰，其余脏器内放射性分布均较低。采用ROI技术测得0.5 h、1 h、2 h、3 h肿瘤部位单位面积内放射性计数（88.14±11.59）、（123.17±9.06）、（98.08±14.40）和（79.87±10.57），并计算肿瘤与肝脏区域的T/NT比值分别为（1.95±0.19）、（3.58±0.78）、（3.95±0.39）和（5.01±0.28）。结论 99mTc-EDTA-MN易于制备具有比较理想的体内分布动力学特性，可满足后续进一步的体内、外实验研究。.
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This population-based study confirms previous results of randomized studies. Antibiotic treatment can be offered as the first-line therapy to a majority of unselected patients with acute appendicitis without medical drawbacks other than the unknown risk for long-term relapse, which must be weighed against the unpredicted but well-known risk for serious major complications following surgical intervention.
A 40-year-old man developed an erythematous rash on the right side of his face 3 weeks after a herpes zoster infection at the same location. Examination revealed an erythematous papular eruption and telangiectasias along the ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the right trigeminal nerve, exactly at the site of the consistent with previous herpes zoster infection, Wolf's isotopic response. Histological examination showed vascular ectatic dilatation and perivascular and perifollicular infiltration of lymphocytes and histiocytes consistent with rosacea. The rash was resistant to oral doxycycline and topical metronidazole 1% cream and resolved with oral isotretinoin therapy.
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One hundred consecutive patients undergoing LC under the care of a single consultant surgeon during a one-year period were studied prospectively. Data collected included patient demographics (age, sex) as well as details of the history of gallstone disease to determine those with complex disease and risk factors for bactibilia. A single dose of antibiotics (second generation cephalosporin and metronidazole) was administered on induction to patients with a risk factor present. Information relating to all radiologically or microbiologically confirmed infections was documented.
The gastroprotective action of metronidazole, an antimicrobial used in the therapy against Helicobacter pylori infection, is unclear. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to study the organoprotective action and antiulcer mechanisms of this drug in rodents.
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Despite the limited resources in the developing countries, treatment based on cultures remains the only solution to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality rates following puerperal infections.