We screened 6120 pregnant women attending hospital for their first antenatal visit--who were at 12-22 weeks' gestation (mean 15.6 weeks)--for bacterial vaginosis or abnormal vaginal flora. We used gram-stained slides of vaginal smears to diagnose abnormal vaginal flora or bacterial vaginosis, in accordance with Nugent's criteria. We randomly allocated 494 women with one of these signs to receive either clindamycin 300 mg or placebo orally twice daily for 5 days. Primary endpoints were spontaneous preterm delivery (birth > or =24 but <37 weeks) and late miscarriage (pregnancy loss > or =13 but <24 weeks). Analysis was intention to treat.
A retrospective pharmacokinetic analysis was performed for 165 antibiotic dosage regimens used in treating 15 microorganisms for which the antibiotics are considered to be agents of first choice or primary alternatives. The pharmacokinetic indices assessed were the three components of the steady-state temporal blood concentration profile: (1) the magnitude of the peak blood level at steady state compared with the minimum inhibitory concentration (Cmaxss/MIC); (2) the duration of the blood level above the MIC during each 72-hour period (number of hours per 72-hour period above MIC); and (3) the product of 1 and 2 (the intensity index). Considering the pharmacokinetic indices and antibiotics studied, ampicillin, cefadroxil (p.o.), cefazolin (i.v.), clindamycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline demonstrated the best pharmacokinetic performances for the penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolide-like, aminoglycoside, and tetracycline groups, respectively. The data suggest that some antibiotics may be effective at lower doses than commonly used, while others may need to be used more aggressively. Antibiotics with 80% or greater protein binding show no substantially reduced performance in the pharmacokinetic indices evaluated as compared with antibiotics bound less than 80%. Substantial differences are demonstrated in pharmacokinetic indices for dosage regimens used in treating specific microorganisms for which the antibiotics are considered the agents of choice or primary alternatives.
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S. aureus strains were isolated from various clinical specimens and identified by routine phenotypic methods and PCR for nuc gene. Erythromycin resistance was determined by disk diffusion testing. Prevalence of MLSB phenotypes was determined by use of the D-test. ermA and ermC genes were detected by PCR.
A total of 528 lower third molars were surgically removed in 288 patients during a period of 30 months. The patients' mean age was 20.7 years (age range, 14-61 years). No severe complications such as perimandibular abscess or cellulitis occurred in any patient in any group. There was no significant difference between the groups in the overall occurrence of local infection symptoms after surgery (range, 3.4-4.4%; mean, 3.98%), nor for other parameters. Interestingly, 69.6% of the patients with dry sockets had partially erupted third molars. This rate was the same in each group (62.5% versus 75%) and did not vary significantly. Reported adverse effects were similar in each group (15.3% for AC, 12.2% for CL, 13.9% for C).
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Adult dogs with neosporosis can develop a variety of neurologic signs. No area of predilection within the nervous system so far has been identified in adult dogs.
Free-living raptors (birds of prey) can act as reservoirs of potentially zoonotic agents but they also can be affected by microorganisms as target hosts. In this retrospective study, microbiological results (n=663) and antibiotic sensitivity profiles (n=108) of bacterial isolates were analyzed from diseased free-living raptors. Sixty-nine percent of cases (n=457) yielded bacteria: 58% were in pure culture and 42% were of different species. Remarkably, samples from necropsies (47%) had higher percentage of pure isolations than those obtained from clinical (31%) samples (p<0.001). Among bacterial isolates, Escherichia coli was the most common agent (35%), principally recovered from necropsied animals with clinical signs of septicaemia or respiratory disorders. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7%) was isolated from animals with systemic infection and from oral lesions, especially in nocturnal raptors (p>0.001). Staphylococcus spp (5%), mainly S. aureus, was found to be the most prevalent cause of pododermatitis (35%) and S. hyicus was isolated from conjunctivitis (18.2%). Interestingly, 8% of samples with lesions compatible with avian tuberculosis were positive to the Mycobacterium avium-complex. The most frequent fungi associated with pneumonic lesions and ingluvitis were Aspergillus spp and Candida spp, respectively. More than 50% of the 108 isolates (34 different bacterial spp) demonstrated resistance to clindamycin, ampicillin, tetracycline, cefuroxime, enrofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Among the E. coli strains, 71% (27/38) presented a multidrug-resistance pattern to >3 antimicrobials. Detection in wildlife of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens that might be significant at the animal-human-ecosystem interface is of great relevance under the 'One Health' approach.
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Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the main cause of vaginitis. The condition is characterised by an abundant and odorous vaginal loss, but more than half the patients with demonstrable signs of BV do not report symptoms at all. Gardnerella vaginalis (Gv) is often associated with BV, but it is not the sole factor responsible, as is shown by the fact that it can be isolated in the vagina of women withBV. In 1992 and 1993, 2630 patients, 1460 of them gynaecological and 1170 obstetric, were admitted to the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic of Parma University. Amsel criteria were adopted for diagnosing BV. Cases of BV were treated with 5 mg/die 2% clindamycin vaginal cream for 7 days. In the event of recurrences, 250 mg tablets of metronidazol were added: 8 tablets in 4 administrations in a single day, treatment also being extended to the partner. Patients admitted in 1993 received a protocol of hygienic and behavioural standards, stress being laid on prophylaxisa measures even after the end of therapy. BV proved to be present in 12.3% of cases, of whom only half were symptomatic. The situation was practically stationary if the 2 years are considered separately. Recurrences of symptomatic bacterial vaginosis were 15% in the absence of protocol application and 8.3% after the protocol. Recurrences were less frequent in the asymptomatic forms. Compared to the total number od cases of BV, recurrences were significantly low (12.1% p < 0.001).
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Numerous reports have described a steady overall increase in resistance among clinical isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group to several antimicrobial agents, particularly clindamycin. Determination of resistance rates is significantly influenced by the number of isolates of each species within the B. fragilis group tested. Historically, the B. fragilis species has remained the most susceptible to most antimicrobials when compared to non-B. fragilis species. This study compares the effect of a gradually changing ratio of blood isolates of B. fragilis to non-B. fragilis species tested by broth micro-dilution over a 12-year period on selected antimicrobial agents. In 1987, the ratio of blood isolates of B. fragilis to non-B. fragilis was 68% to 32%; in 1991 it was 59% to 41%; and in 1999 it was 51% to 49%. Both metronidazole and imipenem showed the least changes because of their inherent high activity against all species. For clindamycin, decreases in susceptibility ranged from 84% to 64% for B. fragilis compared to 58% to 67% for non-B. fragilis species. Ampicillin-sulbactam showed a decrease in susceptibility in B. fragilis and non-B. fragilis species, but was highest in 1999 when the ratio of non-B. fragilis species was the highest. Overall resistance rates to cefoxitin varied from 8% to 25% during the testing years and was consistently higher among the non-B. fragilis species. These comparisons indicate that the ratio of B. fragilis group species isolated from the blood has changed over the last 12 years and has appreciably affected the resistance rates to some commonly used anti-anaerobic agents. Whether the noted changes in species isolation rates are a result of selective antibiotic pressure or other factors is yet to be determined.
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From October 2006 to September 2007, we collected the specimen from 356 patients with lower respiratory tract infections in 14 institutions in Japan, and investigated the susceptibilities of isolated bacteria to various antibacterial agents and patients' characteristics. Of 414 strains that were isolated from specimen (mainly from sputum) and assumed to be bacteria causing in infection, 407 strains were examined. The isolated bacteria were: Staphylococcus aureus 64, Streptococcus pneumoniae 96, Haemophilus influenzae 87, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (non-mucoid) 52, P. aeruginosa (mucoid) 11, Klebsiella pneumoniae 20, and Moraxella catarrhalis 44. Of 64 S. aureus strains, those with 2 microg/ml or less of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus: MSSA) and those with 4 microg/ml or more of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-resistant S. aureus: MRSA) were 27 (42.2%) and 37 (57.8%) strains, respectively. Against MSSA, imipenem had the most potent antibacterial activity and inhibited the growth of all strains at 0.063 microg/ml or less. Against MRSA, vancomycin and linezolid showed the most potent activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 1 microg/ml. Carbapenems showed the most potent activities against S. pneumoniae and in particular, panipenem inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.063 microg/ml or less. Imipenem and faropenem also had a preferable activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.125 and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively. In contrast, there were high-resistant strains (MIC: over 128 microg/ml) for erythromycin (45.8%) and clindamycin (20.8%). Against H. influenzae, levofloxacin showed the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 0.063 microg/ml or less. Meropenem showed the most potent activity against P. aeruginosa (mucoid) and its MIC90 was 0.5 microg/ml. Against P. aeruginosa (non-mucoid), tobramycin had the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 2 microg/ml. Against K. pneumoniae, cefozopran was the most potent activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.063 microg/ml or less. Also, all the antibacterial agents except ampicillin generally showed a potent activity against M. catarrhalis and the MIC90 of them were 2 microg/ml or less. The approximately half the number (50.6%) of the patients with respiratory infection were aged 70 years or older. Bacterial pneumonia and chronic bronchitis accounted for 49.2% and 28.1% of all the respiratory infections, respectively. The bacteria frequently isolated from the patients with bacterial pneumonia were S. pneumoniae (29.2%), S. aureus (20.8%), and H. influenzae (12.9%). H. influenzae (25.0%) and P. aeruginosa (21.7%) also were frequently isolated from the patients with chronic bronchitis. Before the antibacterial agent administration, the bacteria frequently isolated from the patients were S. pneumoniae (27.5%) and H. influenzae (22.5%). The bacteria frequently isolated from the patients treated with macrolides was P. aeruginosa, and its isolation frequently was 39.4%.
Aerococcus viridans is a gram-positive, catalase and oxidase negative, microaerophylic and non-motile coccus which is rarely associated with human infections such as endocarditis, meningitis, artritis and bacteremia. We report a case of bacteremia due to A. viridans in a 61-years-old man with malignant gall bladder neoplasm. The patient underwent a surgical operation and on the 5th day of operation he had severe abdominal pain, vomiting, high fever and discharge from operation site. He was transferred to intensive care unit and blood cultures were obtained. Piperacillin-tazobactam was initiated as empirical therapy. Blood cultures performed in Bactec system (Becton Dickinson, USA) yielded catalase negative, gram-positive cocci in tetrads. The isolate was pyrrolidonyl aminopeptidase (PYR) positive and produced alfa-hemolysis on sheep blood agar. These cocci were identified as A. viridans by Vitek 2 Compact System (BioMerieux, France) and identification was confirmed by using mini API System (BioMerieux, France). Antibiotic susceptibility testing performed with Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method revealed that the isolate was susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline and vancomycin and resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, clindamycin and amikacin. The patient was successfully treated with vancomycin (2 x 1 g/day) and completely recovered without complication. In conclusion, A. viridans should be suspected as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients and these patients should be treated according to the antibiotic susceptibility test results.