A 48-year-old white woman was admitted to the hospital with low-grade fever, night sweats, fatigue, nonproductive cough with dyspnea, bilateral knee pain, and swelling that progressed slowly over 6 weeks. She was a 30-pack-year smoker, and had received outpatient antibiotic therapy with clarithromycin and then cephalexin without improvement. The admission chest radiograph showed bilateral interstitial infiltrates, and an effusion was seen on knee radiographs. She was treated with levofloxacin, cefepime, and methylprednisolone with some improvement, but fevers persisted up to 104 degrees F/40 degrees C. She also developed multiple painful skin nodules (Figure 1) and an enlarging painful tongue ulcer (Figure 2). Her bilateral knee swelling and pain also worsened, and a bone scan showed increased activity. Skin biopsy showed acute and chronic inflammation with an abscess that contained "yeast" (Figure 3). Fungal culture from the skin lesion and joint fluid aspirate grew Blastomyces dermatitidis. Urine antigen and blood antigen enzyme-linked immunoassays for B. dermatitidis were positive. The patient was started on a 6-month course of itraconazole oral solution with slow resolution of her joint inflammation and skin lesions over the next several weeks.
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Topical levofloxacin 0.5% improved the clinical characteristics of keratitis induced by levofloxacin-resistant P. aeruginosa. Such improvement could be attributed to a high concentration of levofloxacin that was above the minimum inhibitory level.
In 47 Langendorff-perfused, AV-blocked rabbit hearts, ciprofloxacin (n = 10), ofloxacin (n = 14), levofloxacin (n = 10), and moxifloxacin (n = 13) in concentrations from 100 microM to 1,000 microM were infused. Eight monophasic action potentials (MAPs) and an ECG were recorded simultaneously. After incremental pacing at cycle lengths from 900 ms to 300 ms to compare the action potential duration, potassium concentration was lowered to provoke TdP. All antibiotics led to a significant increase in QT interval and MAP duration, and exhibited reverse-use dependence. Eight simultaneously recorded MAPs demonstrated an increase in dispersion of repolarization in the presence of all antibiotics. MAP triangulation (ratio: MAP(90/50)) and fluctuation of consecutive action potentials were increased for all tested drugs at high concentrations. In the presence of low potassium concentration, all quinolones led to TdP: ciprofloxacin, 4 out of 10 (40%); ofloxacin, 3 out of 14 (21%); moxifloxacin, 9 out of 13 (69%); and levofloxacin, 2 out of 10 (20%). Hearts that developed TdP demonstrated a significant greater influence on dispersion of repolarization and on triangulation as compared with hearts without TdP.
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Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium fortuitum are the 2 most commonly implicated species of nontuberculous mycobacteria in cases of bacterial keratitis.
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This study was conducted to assess for the prevalence of community resistance amongst E. coli isolates to SMX-TMP and levofloxacin in ambulatory patients discharged from the emergency department (ED).
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A total of 83 GBS isolates were enrolled in this study. Capsular types Ia (42.2%), II (10.8%), III (14.5%) and V (30.1%) were identified in most GBS. One isolate each was classified as type IX and non-typeable.A total of 15 multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) types were identified among the isolates, seven were singletons and eight were represented by more than four isolates. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, cefepime, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, levofloxacin and vancomycin. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was observed in 19.3 and 13.3% of isolates, respectively. All isolates resistant to clindamycin were simultaneously resistant to erythromycin and were distributed in the capsular types III and V. One isolate showed the constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (cMLS(B)) phenotype and ten showed the inducible MLS(B) (iMLS(B)) phenotype. The mechanism of resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin more prevalent among these isolates was mediated by the gene ermA, alone or in combination with the gene ermB. The isolates displaying resistance only to erythromycin belonged to capsular type Ia, and showed the M phenotype, which was mediated by the mefA/E gene. All isolates harbored the gene hylB and at least one pilus variant, PI-1, PI-2a or PI-2b. Although cylE was observed in all GBS, four isolates were classified as gamma-hemolytic and carotenoid pigment non-producers.
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Microcolony growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on agar proportion susceptibility testing is neither well-defined nor previously reported with fluoroquinolone susceptibility testing. We describe here M. tuberculosis microcolony growth with fluoroquinolones, and assess its clinical significance. We screened 797 M. tuberculosis isolates for ofloxacin resistance (2.0 μg/mL) by agar proportion; 19 ofloxacin-resistant and 38 ofloxacin-susceptible isolates were selected for more detailed susceptibility testing with ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin (all at 2.0 μg/mL) and moxifloxacin (0.5 μg/mL). The 57 isolates were also tested at two concentrations both above and below the critical concentrations. Microcolonies were defined as colonies 0.2-0.4 mm in diameter; confirmed microcolonies were present on repeat testing. Of the 57 isolates tested in detail, 7 grew microcolonies, of which 2 (0.3% of all isolates tested) had confirmed microcolonies on repeat testing (6 tests performed, and microcolonies were present on at least 4). Both M. tuberculosis isolates were ofloxacin-resistant on screening, and had ofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) >8 μg/mL. The five other isolates were ofloxacin-susceptible on screening, but had regular colony growth (i.e., resistance) at the drug concentration that initially resulted in microcolonies (ofloxacin 0.5 or 1.0 μg/mL). Microcolonies were observed infrequently with fluoroquinolone susceptibility testing, but when confirmed, they were associated with drug resistance.
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MICs were determined using methodology described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.
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A systematic review was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of current first and second-line therapies in treating H.pylori infection.