Pulmonary abnormalities in brucellosis are rare. We report on nine cases (five adults and four children) with pulmonary brucellosis. All presented with fever, cough and mucopurulent sputum, and most had abnormal signs in the chest. Radiography of the chest showed pneumonic patches or consolidation in five patients, pleural effusion in three, granuloma of the lung in one and a picture of interstitial pneumonitis in one. All the patients had a brucella agglutination titre of 1:320 or more, and an elevated titre in the brucella-specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assay of IgM, IgG and IgA. Blood cultures grew Brucella melitensis in six patients while the pleural fluid aspirate grew the same organism in two of three patients. Treatment with oral oxytetracycline, doxycycline, rifampicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole alone, in combination with each other or together with intramuscular streptomycin was successful in all patients. All our patients recovered and none relapsed.
In order of importance: efficacy, side effects and cost.
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The simultaneous use of beta adrenergic receptor blockers (beta-blockers) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) may confer a high risk of hyperkalemia.
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A 5-year-old infant with diarrhea had heavy growth of Chromobacterium violaceum cultured from stool. This organism is restricted geographically between latitudes 35 degrees N and 35 degrees S. It can cause sepsis and various focal infections but is not a well-known cause of diarrhea.
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During surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Shigella strains isolated in the Netherlands from 1984 to 1989 and forwarded to the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection for typing, sensitivity to twelve antimicrobial agents was assessed. High rates of resistance to the older drugs of choice in treating shigellosis were found, i.e. ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Ampicillin resistance varied from 33 to 53% among Shigella flexneri strains and from 10 to 17% among Shigella sonnei strains. Trimethoprim and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance increased from 8% to about 25% among Shigella flexneri and from 16 to 46% among Shigella sonnei isolates. All strains were susceptible to the newer quinolones, but five strains resistant to nalidixic acid showed decreased susceptibility to norfloxacin. Approximately 10% of the isolates were resistant to the combination of ampicillin, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole.
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Plasma disposition, metabolism, protein binding and renal clearance of sulphamethoxazole (SMZ) and trimethoprim (TMP) were studied in four pigs after intravenous administration at a dose of 40 and 8 mg/kg, respectively. SMZ and TMP were quickly eliminated (mean elimination half-lives: 2.7 and 2.4 h, respectively). SMZ was predominantly acetylated; no hydroxy and glucuronide derivates could be detected in plasma and urine. TMP was 0-demethylated into 4-hydroxytrimethoprim (M1) and 3-hydroxytrimethoprim (M4) metabolite and subsequently extensively glucuronidated. SMZ, TMP and its M1 metabolite were excreted predominantly by glomerular filtration, while N4-acetylsulphamethoxazole and glucuronide conjugates of the M1 and M4 metabolites of TMP were actively eliminated by tubular secretion. The proportional drug percentage being present in the urine as parent compound was 13.1% for TMP and 16.0% for SMZ. The glucuronide conjugates of the M1 and M4 metabolites formed the main part (81.5%) of urinary TMP excretion pattern.
The proportion of desired responses (ie, not reordering the alert-triggering drug within 10 minutes of firing) was 57.2% (111 of 194 hard stop alerts) in the intervention group and 13.5% (20 of 148) in the control group (adjusted odds ratio, 0.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.045-0.33). However, the study was terminated early because of 4 unintended consequences identified among patients in the intervention group: a delay of treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in 2 patients and a delay of treatment with warfarin in another 2 patients.
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One of the more perplexing aspects of urinary tract infections (UTIs) is their high propensity to recur. It has been proposed that recurrent infections are a result of the reintroduction of bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to the urinary tract (UT); however, since a significant subset of recurrent UTIs are caused by an identical bacterial strain, it has been challenging to formally prove this hypothesis for same-strain recurrences by using epidemiologic approaches. We present data here obtained by using a mouse model of UTIs in which it was shown that 36% (5 of 14) of mice infected with uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) will have at least one bacteriuric recurrence, with 21% (3 of 14) having more than one recurrence during a 6-week period after an acute UTI. Intraurethrally infected mice develop UPEC reservoirs in both their feces and their bladders. Ten days of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) therapy reduces urinary recurrences and eradicates fecal colonization, whereas 3 days of SXT treatment has no effect over a twenty-eight-day observation period despite clearing fecal colonization acutely. Interestingly, SXT is unable to eradicate bacteria from the bladder reservoir even after a 10-day treatment regimen, thus demonstrating that the bladder reservoir can persist even in the face of long-term antibiotic therapy.
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We conducted a 3·5-year prospective study that involved 250 children with and 150 without diarrhoea, aged 1-60 months, from low-income families in Teresina/Brazilian Northeast. All samples were assayed for E. coli, enterotoxin and CF genes and antimicrobial susceptibility by microbiological methods and PCR. ETEC strains were isolated from 9·2% children with and 4·0% without diarrhoea. Infection was more common in children aged 6-24 months in rainy months. elt⁺ /CFA/IV⁺ and elt⁺ /CS14⁺ were the most frequent genotypes. Susceptibility to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin and resistance to ampicillin, cephalothin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were common.
The mortality rates of infants and children aged less than five years are declining globally and in Nepal but less among neonates. Most deliveries occur at home without skilled attendants, and most neonates may not receive appropriate care through the existing medical systems. So, a community-based pilot programme-Morang Innovative Neonatal Intervention (MINI) programme-was implemented in Morang district of Nepal to see the feasibility of bringing the management of sick neonates closer to home. The objective of this model was to answer the question: "Can a team of female community health volunteers and paid facility-based community health workers (collectively called CHWs) within the existing heath system correctly follow a set of guidelines to identify possible severe bacterial infection in neonates and young infants and successfully deliver their treatment?" In the MINI model, the CHWs followed an algorithm to classify sick young infants with possible severe bacterial infection (PSBI). Female Community Health Volunteers (FCHVS) were trained to visit homes soon after delivery, record the birth, counsel mothers on essential newborn care, and assess the newborns for danger-signs. Infants classified as having PSBI, during this or subsequent contacts, were treated with co-trimoxazole and referred to facility-based CHWs for seven-day treatment with injection gentamicin. Additional supervisory support was provided for quality of care and intensified monitoring. Of 11,457 livebirths recorded during May 2005-April 2007, 1,526 (13.3%) episodes of PSBI were identified in young infants. Assessment of signs by the FCHVs matched that of more highly-trained facility-based CHWs in over 90% of episodes. Treatment was initiated in 90% of the PSBI episodes; 93% completed a full course of gentamicin. Case fatality in those who received treatment with gentamicin was 1.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-2.3] compared to 5.3% (95% CI 2.6-9.7) in episodes that did not receive any treatment. Within the existing government health infrastructure, the CHWs can assess and identify possible infections in neonates and young infants and deliver appropriate treatment with antibiotics. This will result in improvement in the likelihood of survival and address one of the main causes of neonatal mortality.
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In a prospective observational cohort study, we assessed the effect of caregiver-reported antibiotic treatment for diarrhoea on the timing of a child's next episode among 434 children followed from birth to 3 years of age in Vellore, India. We estimated median time differences and time ratios from inverse probability of exposure-weighted Kaplan-Meier curves for the time to next diarrhoea episode, comparing children who did and did not receive antibiotics for the previous episode.
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The treatment of acute myelocytic leukemia in childhood and young adults has lagged behind that for acute lymphocytic leukemia. The studies described here were directed towards evaluating the role of intensive chemotherapy in the treatment of this illness. Intensive remission induction therapy combining cytosine arabinoside with an anthracycline antibiotic produced a complete remission rate comparable to that achieved in acute lymphocytic leukemia (45 of 49 patients or 92%). Intensive consolidation chemotherapy produced a median duration of complete remission of 160 weeks with 40% of patients projected to be in remission at 4 years. By contrast, the median duration of remission for patients treated with moderate consolidation/maintenance therapy was 23 weeks with only 10% of patients in remission at 4 years. These studies demonstrate that intensive chemotherapy can be administered to pediatric patients and young adults and that this approach to therapy produces a high remission rate with a 3 year median duration of remission.