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We evaluated retrospectively the treatment outcomes of 39 patients who were treated for INH-resistant pulmonary TB. The treatment regimens consisted of a 12-month regimen of rifampin (RIF) and ethambutol (EMB), with pyrazinamide (PZA) given during the first 2 months (2HREZ/10RE) (n = 21), a 9-month regimen of RIF and EMB with PZA during the first 2 months (2HREZ/7RE) (n = 5), and a 6-month regimen of RIF, EMB, and PZA (2HREZ/4REZ) (n = 13). After drug susceptibility testing confirmed the INH-resistance of the isolated M. tuberculosis strains, INH was discontinued for all the patients.
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Rifapentine administered 5 days per week has potent activity in mouse models of antituberculosis chemotherapy, but efficacy and safety data are limited in humans. We compared the antimicrobial activity and safety of rifapentine vs rifampin during the first 8 weeks of pulmonary tuberculosis treatment.
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To assess the efficacy of the national tuberculosis control programme, a prospective study of primary drug resistance was conducted from April 1992 to July 1994 in Casablanca.
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The chance of incidence of XDR TB is on the rise due to improper use of second line anti-tubercular drugs. XDR-TB is very difficult to treat successfully and is often referred to as "virtually untreatable form of TB". We herein report a case of XDR TB confirmed by bacteriological examination in a WHO recognised laboratory who after 12 months of regular treatment improved both clinically and radiologically with sputum smear conversion. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previous report of any similar case in literature.
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The authors report and discuss a rare case of the long-term course and treatment of cutaneous BCG infection in an HIV-negative, healthy nurse. Over 5 years we cured the wrist and lower leg cutaneous tuberculosis infection caused by an accident at work. Persistent antituberculous therapy and surgical procedure were applied, but after detection of an encapsulated abscess in the wrist followed by needle aspiration, antituberculous therapy was sufficient and our patient was cured. Failing the addition of local applications, antituberculous therapy with radical surgical treatment remains the recommended treatment in cutaneous infections.
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We report a bronchopulmonary infection with Mycobacterium malmoense in a patient with severe immunosuppression due to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, humoral immunodeficiency after thymoma (Good's syndrome) and prolonged immunosuppressive treatment after myasthenic crisis. It presented as non-resolving pneumonia of the left lower lobe. Bronchoscopically, a bronchoesophageal fistula was detected. Numerous acid-fast organisms were found in the sputum specimen and in the bronchial biopsy around the fistula. M. malmoense was isolated from sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage and bronchial biopsy. Whereas conventional in vitro susceptibility testing revealed susceptibility only to ethambutol, multi-drug susceptibility testing confirmed susceptibility to rifampicin, ethambutol, clarithromycin and prothionamide. The clinical outcome after 12 months of therapy resulted in a stable remission and considerable suppression of the mycobacterial load, but not in complete eradication.
To determine the prevalences of initial and acquired resistance to the main anti-tuberculosis drugs 2 years after the implantation of a tuberculosis control programme in the province.
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Prisons play a significant role in the epidemiology of drug-resistant tuberculosis. A total of 114 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates recovered from patients in the Archangel prison (Archangel, Russia) in 2001 were studied using restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis and spoligotyping. Drug susceptibility was analyzed by the radiometric broth method (BACTEC; Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Systems). According to genotyping studies, 87 (76.3%) of the isolates belonged to the W-Beijing family. Nearly all (96.6%) W-Beijing isolates were part of a cluster, whereas only 25.9% of the other isolates were clustered (P<.001). The largest cluster comprised 43 patients. Multidrug resistance was high among new (34.0%) and previously treated (55.0%) cases. Resistance to ethambutol (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.0-12.7; P=.03) and streptomycin (OR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.5-11.6; P=.001) was significantly associated with infection with W-Beijing isolates. Tuberculosis due to drug-resistant W-Beijing isolates is a major problem in the Archangel prison.
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Ethambutol is an essential medication in the management of tuberculosis. However, it can cause an optic neuropathy of uncertain etiology. Ethambutol toxicity was therefore studied in rodent retinal cells, and agents that might block its toxicity were considered.
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Daily rifapentine plus isoniazid-pyrazinamide in mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces cure in 3 months. Whether cure corresponds to latent infection contained by host immunity or true tissue sterilization is unknown.
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Thirty six cases with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis were retrospectively studied to define the causes attributable to the emergence of multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis. All these tuberculosis cases were microbiologically confirmed and resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin. Data analysis using matched-pair sampling methods (1:3) demonstrated that the followings are the significant risk factors for the emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; incompliance to treatment (Odds ratio 21.0: 95% CI 4.10-107.63), alcohol abuse (Odds ratio 15.0: 95% CI 2.34-96.1) and the history of previous treatment (Odds ratio 5.0: 95% CI 2.04-12.21), while diabetes mellitus is not statistically significant. The incompliance to treatment which is primarily thought to be patient's responsibility results in non-optimal administration of antituberculous agents, leading to the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Other factors that may have contributed to the emergence of resistance included the unnecessary change of regimen before completion of chemotherapy. This is patient-unrelated situation where responsibility lies in the medical side. A clinical case presented here is an example. In this case RFP was replaced with ethambutol 3-months after the initiation of regimen including SM, INH and RFP because of abnormal elevation of GOT and GPT without any supporting evidence that RFP was causative. The readministration of RFP after 1-year cessation did not induce liver dysfunction, while the drug resistance was observed not only to RFP but also to INH. This case suggests unnecessary interruption of RFP could lead to the emergence of resistance to INH as well as RFP. One known mechanism of drug resistance is random mutation and the selection by drugs administered during the course of chemotherapy. The cases with advanced cavitary lesions would have a higher probability of the occurrence of mutation. The more the number of mutant bacilli, the higher the probability of emergence of multidrug resistance. Those cases in which longer period of time is needed for the negative conversion of M. tuberculosis should be treated with potent chemotherapy regimens under the intense supervision. Since both INH and RFP are the most potent among currently available antituberculous agents. It is crucial to preserve the potency of these essential agents before novel antituberculous are developed.
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In order to study certain epidemiological features of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) carriers and their influence on the control and treatment, a group of patients was evaluated over a four-year period, selected by: Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolation from sputum; resistance to Rifampin, Isoniazid and one more drug, or, failure of reserve regimen, all cases were from a tuberculosis reference unit in the City of S o Paulo. A total of 182 patients were reviewed, with a mean age of 35.7 +/- 6.8 years and 112 (61.5%) were male. These patients was classified according to therapeutic history, as: primary MDR-TB (with initial sensitivity test) 11 (6%); post primary MDR-TB (after irregular use previous treatment) 134 (74%), and indeterminate MDR-TB (failure after regular use of initial and reserve regimens) 37 (20%). Contagion was identified in 41/170 patients, acquired through domiciliary rather than institutional transmission. There were four familial outbreaks and none were institutional. The most frequent condition associated with these cases was abandonment of therapy (45%) followed by alcoholism (27%), sequential failure in the treatment regimens (23%), MDR contagion (15%), drug reaction (6%), HIV positive (4%) and diabetes (3%). There was resistance to Rifampin+Isoniazid in 100%, Streptomycin in 83% and Ethambutol in 47%. Conventional X-ray revealed cavities in all, though only 35 (19%) were unilateral. These cases are discussed and some suggestions presented.