The study revealed that predominant phage group amongst MRSA strains was phage group III and amongst MSSA from the community was phage group NA (phage type 81). MSSA strains isolated from the community differed significantly from hospital strains in their phage type and antibiotic susceptibility. A good correlation was observed between community acquired strains of phage type 81 and sensitivity to gentamycin and clindamycin.
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Significantly more women (P < .01) treated with antibiotics (20 of 48, 42%) remained undelivered 7 days after admission compared with those managed expectantly without antibiotics (seven of 46, 15%). In addition, more neonates in the group managed with antibiotics were admitted to the routine nursery (nine of 48 versus two of 45; P = .03). However, there was no difference between the groups in the frequency of serious maternal or neonatal morbidity.
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After 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction, non-vaccine serotypes such as 19A are increasing among Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, only limited data on 19A S. pneumoniae are available in Asian countries.
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We report a 66-year-old woman with a 3-year history of intensely pruritic follicular papules in the axillar, pubic and inguinal areas. Previous treatment with topical fusidic acid and gentamicin sulfate was ineffective. The clinical and histological examination was consistent with Fox-Fordyce disease. Application of clindamycin in an alcoholic propylene glycol solution led to the clearing of the lesions within 1 month. Nine months later, the treatment was stopped, and no recurrence was observed.
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Macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from Finland, Australia, and the United Kingdom and, more recently, Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. pyogenes strains from the United States were shown to have an unusual resistance pattern to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B antibiotics. This pattern, referred to as M resistance, consists of susceptibility to clindamycin and streptogramin B antibiotics but resistance to 14- and 15-membered macrolides. An evaluation of the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance phenotypes among our streptococcal strains collected from 1993 to 1995 suggested that this unusual resistance pattern is not rare. Eighty-five percent (n = 66) of the S. pneumoniae and 75% (n = 28) of the S. pyogenes strains in our collection had an M phenotype. The mechanism of M resistance was not mediated by target modification, as isolated ribosomes from a pneumococcal strain bearing the M phenotype were fully sensitive to erythromycin. Further, the presence of an erm methylase was excluded with primers specific for an erm consensus sequence. However, results of studies that determined the uptake and incorporation of radiolabeled erythromycin into cells were consistent with the presence of a macrolide efflux determinant. The putative efflux determinant in streptococci seems to be distinct from the multicomponent macrolide efflux system in coagulase-negative staphylococci. The recognition of the prevalence of the M phenotype in streptococci has implications for sensitivity testing and may have an impact on the choice of antibiotic therapy in clinical practice.
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An antibiotic that carries out antimicrobial activity against both viridans streptococci and oral anaerobes should be suitable for treatment of dentoalveolar infection, periodontitis, and pericoronitis. Penicillin remains effective as an antimicrobial against most major pathogens in orofacial odontogenic infections. Cefmetazole, clindamycin, and minocycline may be effective against most pathogens, including penicillin-unsusceptible bacteria.
The absolute bioavailability of clindamycin phosphate vaginal ovule with comparison to a reference treatment of clindamycin phosphate sterile solution, as well as the relative bioavailability of the ovule compared to clindamycin phosphate vaginal cream, was evaluated in 12 healthy adult female volunteers. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either the ovule or cream formulation intravaginally for 3 consecutive days during the two-way crossover portion of the study. During a third treatment period, all subjects received 100 mg of clindamycin as a 4-minute intravenous infusion of clindamycin phosphate sterile solution (10 mg/mL). Clindamycin concentrations in serum were assayed by a high-performance liquid chromatography method with detection by mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic analyses of the serum data indicated low systemic absorption of clindamycin from the vaginal cream (about 4%), consistent with results of previous bioavailability studies. Following intravaginal administration of the clindamycin phosphate ovule, systemic absorption averaged 30%, which was approximately sevenfold greater than after dosing with the vaginal cream. The higher drug absorption for the ovule may be related to differences in formulation effects on the vaginal membrane. Nevertheless, systemic exposure to clindamycin from the ovule is still considerably lower than from a therapeutic oral dose.
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The serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance of GBS in infants in Korea with invasive bacterial infections were examined for the 19-year period 1995-2013. Isolates obtained previously from hospitals located in three different regions were analyzed for capsular serotype by PCR and sequencing and for antimicrobial susceptibility.
Resistance to pristinamycin (or virginiamycin) was first encountered in Staphylococcus aureus strains in 1975. These strains are usually multiresistant, in particular to streptogramin A components (SgA), macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B components (ML SgB ). Results of molecular analysis of 16 such strains, recently isolated, suggests that SgA resistance is not encoded by plasmid genes. Curing and mixed culture experiments allowed us to dissociate SgA from SgB resistance genes. Conversely, in a previous study on other strains, the same two resistance genes were shown to be carried by a single plasmid and could not be dissociated. Since 1981, a new type of pristinamycin -resistant S. aureus strains has been isolated. These strains are resistant to SgA and lincosamides but susceptible to macrolides and SgB . Eight such strains from 3 parisian hospitals have been studied. In mixed culture experiments, SgA resistance and penicillinase genes always transferred jointly. In some instances, these two determinants also cotransferred with genes encoding lincomycin, lincomycin and clindamycin, and/or aminoglycosides resistance.
The development of resistance of Propionibacterium acnes to topical antibiotic regimens has led to the need to re-evaluate the use of topical antibiotics in the treatment of acne vulgaris. While the rate of topical antibiotic monotherapy is declining, their use should be reserved for situations where the direct need for antibiotics arises. If a clinician feels that antibiotics are a necessary component to acne therapy, they should be used as part of a combination regimen.