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To improve the empiric antimicrobial therapy of community-acquired (CA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), it is necessary to generate data on the current spectrum and susceptibility profile of associated bacteria. CA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA MRSA) is increasingly being reported in SSTIs in India and globally.
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In this investigation, the penicillin-resistant and beta-lactamase-producing subgingival microbiota associated with adult periodontitis was identified, and the impact of a recent exposure to penicillin on the recovery of resistant organisms from this microbiota was assessed. Subjects with adult periodontitis were examined clinically and microbiologically. Twenty-one subjects had a documented history of penicillin therapy within the previous 6 months whereas an additional 21 subjects had no history of antibiotic use within 1 year. Subgingival plaque samples were cultured anaerobically on nonselective and penicillin-containing elective media. MICs and beta-lactamase production were determined for the isolates from the elective medium. The penicillin-resistant microbiota consisted primarily of gram-negative organisms, including Bacteroides, Veillonella, Haemophilus, Eikenella, and Capnocytophaga species. The prevalence (P less than 0.05) and proportions (P less than 0.005) of both penicillin-resistant pigmented Bacteroides and Veillonella species were significantly greater in subjects with recent penicillin exposure. Of the penicillin-resistant genera identified, beta-lactamase production was detected in species of pigmented Bacteroides, Capnocytophaga, and Streptococcus. The prevalence of beta-lactamase-producing Bacteroides species was significantly greater in subjects with recent penicillin exposure (P less than 0.05). Of the antibiotics examined, no single agent was uniformly effective against all of the penicillin-resistant strains, but metronidazole and clindamycin were active against all of the penicillin-resistant pigmented Bacteroides strains.
This retrospective observational medical chart review study enrolled physicians from four UAE sites to collect data for 24 patients with documented MRSA complicated skin and soft tissue infections, hospitalized between July 2010 and June 2011, and discharged alive by July 2011. Data include clinical characteristics and outcomes, hospital length of stay (LOS), MRSA-targeted IV and PO antibiotic use, and ES and ED eligibility using literature-based and expert-validated criteria.
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To characterize the in vitro elution and bioactivity of 2 formulations of antibiotics in a novel, dissolvable, cross-linked dextran polymer matrix: Formulation 1-amikacin and clindamycin (AC); Formulation 2-amikacin, clindamycin, and vancomycin (ACV).
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This was a prospective, cross-sectional, quasiexperimental study. Samples of anterior nares were obtained from dermatology patients given a diagnosis of acne vulgaris (n = 263) who were treated with antibiotics (n = 142) or who were not treated with antibiotics (n = 121). Specimens were tested for the presence of S aureus by growth on mannitol salt agar and then isolated on 5% sheep blood agar. Identification was confirmed based on colonial morphology, Gram stain, catalase, and coagulase testing. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the VITEK 2 system (bioMerieux, Marcy-l'Étoile, France).
Thirty three out of 172 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and 50 out of 277 isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were subjected for D-zone testing. Among them 13/33 and 28/50 showed inducible clindamycin resistance, respectively. There was no significant difference in inducible clindamycin resistance regarding to methicillin susceptibility pattern. Positive D-test was observed in 17.39 and 13.33% of Group B streptococci and Streptococcus spp., respectively.
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A total of 50 Staphylococcus intermedius strains isolated in France from canine pyodermas in 2002 were investigated for their susceptibility to various antimicrobial drugs. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed using a 2-fold serial dilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined. About 62% of the 50 strains tested were producers of beta-lactamase and categorized as penicillin-resistant. About 26% demonstrated resistance to sulphonamides, 46% to oxytetracycline, 30% to chloramphenicol, 28% to streptomycin, kanamycin, neomycin or erythromycin, 22% to clindamycin, 6% to doxycycline, 2% to gentamicin, enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin or pradofloxacin. Acquired resistance was not observed to a clavulanic acid-amoxicillin combination, oxacillin, cephalosporins (cephalexin, ceftiofur and cefquinome), trimethoprim, a sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim combination and florfenicol. About 42% were simultaneously resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes (multiresistance). All isolates with acquired resistance to erythromycin were also resistant to streptomycin and neomycin/kanamycin. About 22% of isolates exhibited cross-resistance between erythromycin and clindamycin and all clindamycin-resistant isolates also exhibited resistance to erythromycin. Resistance to penicillin, oxytetracycline and chloramphenicol was also positively associated with resistance to erythromycin and streptomycin.
The combination of gentamicin and clindamycin is appropriate for the treatment of endometritis. Regimens with activity against penicillin resistant anaerobic bacteria are better than those without. There is no evidence that any one regimen is associated with fewer side effects. Once uncomplicated endometritis has clinically improved with intravenous therapy, oral therapy is not needed.
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An antibiotic, to be effective for prophylaxis in abdominal trauma, should quickly achieve high concentrations in the intestinal wall and at enough inhibitory levels to kill most aerobic and anaerobic bacteria that are potential contaminants at the site of surgical incision. Therefore, we studied the intestinal tissue levels of clindamycin, gentamicin, and mezlocillin to see whether the tissue levels achieved by these antibiotics in the intestinal tissue were adequate. A single dose of mezlocillin, 4 grams; clindamycin, 600 mg and gentamicin, 80 mg; quickly reached the desired concentrations, i.e., 52.3, 9.69 and 6.1 micrograms/gram of intestinal tissue respectively. These levels were high enough to inhibit the growth of most isolates of E. coli and B. fragilis, common pathogens involved in intra-abdominal abscess.
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Dermatologists frequently are consulted by a pregnant patient or a woman of childbearing age who desires acne therapy. Because there are no published studies in which women took acne medications throughout pregnancy, information about safety must be obtained indirectly from studies in which the agents were taken for another indication during some portion of pregnancy. Oral tetracycline is associated with maternal liver toxicity and deciduous tooth staining in the infant, and tetracycline occasionally has been associated with other congenital anomalies. Maternal isotretinoin ingestion is associated with major craniofacial and cardiac deformities, as well as other congenital anomalies. Erythromycin, however, appears to be safe. Topical acne medications never have been implicated as a cause of fetal deformities in human beings. Dermatologists should be aware of potential toxic and teratogenic effects of acne medicines before prescribing them to women of childbearing age. Prompt reporting of adverse effects is encouraged.
The prevalence of the ermA, ermB and ermC genes were 29.6%, 17.1% and 0.66% respectively, and constitutive resistance was the most frequent as compared to the other two phenotypes.
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The rapid antigen test can lead to a better use of antibiotics. Its use in Paediatric Primary Health Care could be useful when, as when the result is negative, there would be no need to confirm by a culture, in those Health Centres with difficult access to laboratory.