Community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a major global problem. This study attempted to investigate the prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains among 360 healthy university students at An-Najah National University, Palestine. For the purpose of comparing the staphylococcal cassette chromosome methicillin resistant determinant (SCCmec) type of MRSA, 46 clinical MRSA isolates were also included in this study.
Strains of pneumococcus obtained from children admitted with invasive diseases were isolated at Hospital de Clínicas of Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Brazil, and sent to Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, Brazil, for further identification, serotyping, and determination of antimicrobial susceptibility.
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(1) Percutaneous lung aspiration had a high diagnostic yield and accuracy in our series, with a relatively low incidence of complications. (2) Anaerobic bacteria were less frequently implicated in our cases than previously reported. This finding led to significant changes in the initial empiric antibiotic treatment.
In the present study, we found that the E-test and the oxacillin salt agar screening test S (0.75 microg oxacillin per ml), when compared with polymerase chain reaction, were the most accurate currently available methods to phenotypically detect oxacillin resistance of coagulase negative Staphylococcus species. This study demonstrated that a good option for screening of ocular isolates for oxacillin resistance in the microbiology laboratory is the cefoxitin disk diffusion test and the automated Vitek system. We believe it is important to have available methods that accurately detect methicillin resistance of the less commonly encountered species, chiefly because of their increasing importance as opportunistic pathogens.
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We investigated the mechanism by which clindamycin (CLI) modulates cytokine induction after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Although CLI decreased the intracellular expression levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and increased IL-6 expression in macrophages, cytokine mRNA expression levels were similar in CLI-treated and untreated groups. Our findings suggest that CLI modulates cytokine production in LPS-stimulated macrophages.
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The efficacy and safety of 12-week treatment with AA-Clin in patients with mild-to-moderate facial acne vulgaris were evaluated by a multicenter, randomized, and double-blind study. A total of 88 male and 62 female patients were randomly assigned to one of these treatments: AA 5%, Clin 2%, and combination of them. Every 4 weeks, total inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions were counted, acne severity index (ASI) was calculated, and patient satisfaction was recorded.
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A total of 31 strains of Mycobacterium avium complex isolated from patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome were tested for susceptibility to 30 antimicrobial agents by using microdilution trays containing dried antimicrobial agents. MICs were determined over a period of 7 days of growth in a broth medium (7HSF) that is equivalent to 7H11 agar. MICs obtained by this method showed good agreement with MICs determined by the agar dilution method. Strains could be divided into two groups by their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. All group 1 strains (8 of the 31 strains tested) were at least moderately susceptible to inhibition by a variety of beta-lactam antimicrobial agents, including amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cefmenoxime. Group 2 strains (23 of 31) were susceptible only to amikacin (22 of 23 strains). All 31 strains were resistant to oxacillin, clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, vancomycin, nitrofurantoin, and aztreonam at the highest concentration of antimicrobial agent present in the microdilution trays. The addition of Tween 80 to 7HSF broth increased the susceptibility of M. avium complex to many of the antimicrobial agents tested. Killing of M. avium complex (i.e., less than or equal to 1% survival after 7 days) was found to vary for different strains and antimicrobial agents. Killing of some strains by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, carbenicillin, azlocillin, cefmenoxime, cefotaxime, amikacin, and ampicillin occurred at concentrations of antimicrobial agent that are achievable in serum. Further studies are needed to determine whether any of these antimicrobial agents has activity against M. avium complex cells that have been ingested by macrophages.
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Between 2007 and 2009, 226 clinical strains of Streptococcus agalactiae, recovered from female genital specimens and from gastric fluid or ear specimens from infected newborns, were isolated at the Laboratory of Microbiology of Charles Nicolle Hospital of Tunis. They were investigated to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance and to characterize the mechanisms of resistance to macrolide and tetracycline. All strains were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin and quinupristin-dalfopristin. They were resistant to chloramphenicol (3.1%), rifampicin (19.1%), erythromycin (40%) and tetracycline (97.3%); 3.1% were highly resistant to streptomycin and 1.3% to gentamicin. Among the erythromycin-resistant isolates, 78.7% showed a constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B)) phenotype with high-level resistance to macrolides and clindamycin (MIC(50) >256 µg ml(-1)), 10% showed an inducible MLS(B) phenotype with high MICs of macrolides (MIC(50) >256 µg ml(-1)) and low MICs of clindamycin (MIC(50)=8 µg ml(-1)) and 2.2% showed an M phenotype with a low erythromycin-resistance level (MIC range=12-32 µg ml(-1)) and low MICs of clindamycin (MIC range: 0.75-1 µg ml(-1)). All strains were susceptible to quinupristin-dalfopristin and linezolid (MIC(90): 0.75 µg ml(-1) for each). MLS(B) phenotypes were genotypically confirmed by the presence of the erm(B) gene and the M phenotype by the mef(A) gene. Resistance to tetracycline was mainly due to the tet(M) gene (93.1%) encoding a ribosome protection mechanism. This determinant is commonly associated with the conjugative transposon Tn916 (P≤0.0002). tet(O) and tet(T) existed in a minority (2.2% and 0.4%, respectively). The efflux mechanism presented by tet(L) was less frequently present (4.5%). No significant association was found between erm(B) and tet(M) genes.
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To investigate the trends of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens isolated from surgical site infections (SSI), a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide survey. Seven main organisms were collected from SSI at 27 medical centers in 2010 and were shipped to a central laboratory for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 702 isolates from 586 patients with SSI were included. Staphylococcus aureus (20.4 %) and Enterococcus faecalis (19.5 %) were the most common isolates, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.4 %) and Bacteroides fragilis group (15.4 %). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus among S. aureus was 72.0 %. Vancomycin MIC 2 μg/ml strains accounted for 9.7 %. In Escherichia coli, 11 of 95 strains produced extended-spectrum β-lactamase (Klebsiella pneumoniae, 0/53 strains). Of E. coli strains, 8.4 % were resistant to ceftazidime (CAZ) and 26.3 % to ciprofloxacin (CPFX). No P. aeruginosa strains produced metallo-β-lactamase. In P. aeruginosa, the resistance rates were 7.4 % to tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC), 10.2 % to imipenem (IPM), 2.8 % to meropenem, cefepime, and CPFX, and 0 % to gentamicin. In the B. fragilis group, the rates were 28.6 % to clindamycin, 5.7 % to cefmetazole, 2.9 % to TAZ/PIPC and IPM, and 0 % to metronidazole (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron; 59.1, 36.4, 0, 0, 0 %). MIC₉₀ of P. aeruginosa isolated 15 days or later after surgery rose in TAZ/PIPC, CAZ, IPM, and CPFX. In patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score ≥3, the resistance rates of P. aeruginosa to TAZ/PIPC and CAZ were higher than in patients with ASA ≤2. The data obtained in this study revealed the trend of the spread of resistance among common species that cause SSI. Timing of isolation from surgery and the patient's physical status affected the selection of resistant organisms.
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