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We included 19 trials (5839 randomised participants); seven compared penicillin with cephalosporins, six compared penicillin with macrolides, three compared penicillin with carbacephem, one trial compared penicillin with sulphonamides, one trial compared clindamycin with ampicillin, and one trial compared azithromycin with amoxicillin in children. All included trials reported clinical outcomes. Reporting of randomisation, allocation concealment, and blinding was poor in all trials. The overall quality of the evidence assessed using the GRADE tool was low for the outcome 'resolution of symptoms' in the intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis and very low for the outcomes 'resolution of symptoms' of evaluable participants and for adverse events. We downgraded the quality of evidence mainly due to lack of (or poor reporting of) randomisation or blinding, or both, heterogeneity, and wide confidence intervals (CIs).There was a difference in symptom resolution in favour of cephalosporins compared with penicillin (evaluable patients analysis odds ratio (OR) for absence of resolution of symptoms 0.51, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.97; number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB) 20, N = 5, n = 1660; very low quality evidence). However, this was not statistically significant in the ITT analysis (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.12; N = 5, n = 2018; low quality evidence). Clinical relapse was lower for cephalosporins compared with penicillin (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.99; NNTB 50, N = 4, n = 1386; low quality evidence), but this was found only in adults (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.88; NNTB 33, N = 2, n = 770). There were no differences between macrolides and penicillin for any of the outcomes. One unpublished trial in children found a better cure rate for azithromycin in a single dose compared to amoxicillin for 10 days (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.73; NNTB 18, N = 1, n = 482), but there was no difference between the groups in ITT analysis (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.05; N = 1, n = 673) or at long-term follow-up (evaluable patients analysis OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.82; N = 1, n = 422). Children experienced more adverse events with azithromycin compared to amoxicillin (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.78 to 3.99; N = 1, n = 673). Compared with penicillin carbacephem showed better symptom resolution post-treatment in adults and children combined (ITT analysis OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.99; NNTB 14, N = 3, n = 795), and in the subgroup analysis of children (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.99; NNTB 8, N = 1, n = 233), but not in the subgroup analysis of adults (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.46 to 1.22, N = 2, n = 562). Children experienced more adverse events with macrolides compared with penicillin (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.06 to 5.15; N = 1, n = 489). Studies did not report on long-term complications so it was unclear if any class of antibiotics was better in preventing serious but rare complications.
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Our results show that the local monotherapy with probiotics has fewer efficacies in comparison to the combine therapeutic schemes for treatment of vaginal disbacteriosis with dominant anaerobic species.
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Clinical findings and treatment are presented. The 28-year-old man visited the authors' hospital due to ciliary injection and hypopyon over left eye. On examination, Behcet-mimicking symptoms were observed, such as genital and oral ulcers and arthritis. Furthermore, S. viridans was found in the urethral discharge culture. Under the impression of ReA, which was triggered by S. viridans, NSAID and antibiotics were prescribed. Complete resolution of ocular and systemic symptoms was achieved after 2 months of treatment.
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All three antibiotics were detected in concentrations higher than their MIC. There were no differences between the groups regardless whether vancomycin was added to the cement, or whether the cement was applied with the acetabular cup spacer or with the stem spacer.
Six volunteers were given 600 mg clindamycin intravenously to investigate the serum bactericidal activity (SBA) against 50 methicillin susceptible (MSSA) and 50 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against MSSA, MRSA and 50 methicillin resistant strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), of which 50% were slime-producing, were determined. SBA of clindamycin against MSSA and MRSA was equally high (mean reciprocal SBA titer against MSSA vs MRSA 1 h after application was 13.0 vs 13.45), although MICs against MRSA were markedly higher than against MSSA (MIC 90 of MRSA vs MSSA: 0.06 vs > 32 mg/l). There was no difference in MICs between slime- and non-slime-producing MRSE.
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We present a novel methodology to construct a Boolean dynamic model from time series metagenomic information and integrate this modeling with genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions to identify metabolic underpinnings for microbial interactions. We apply this in the context of a critical health issue: clindamycin antibiotic treatment and opportunistic Clostridium difficile infection. Our model recapitulates known dynamics of clindamycin antibiotic treatment and C. difficile infection and predicts therapeutic probiotic interventions to suppress C. difficile infection. Genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions reveal metabolic differences between community members and are used to explore the role of metabolism in the observed microbial interactions. In vitro experimental data validate a key result of our computational model, that B. intestinihominis can in fact slow C. difficile growth.
From 1998 to 1999, a large number of community-acquired respiratory tract isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=566), Haemophilus influenzae (n=513) and Moraxella catarrhalis (n=228) were collected from 15 centres in Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, China, the Philippines, Singapore, South Africa and Taiwan through the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. Isolates were tested against 26 antimicrobial agents using the NCCLS-recommended methods. Overall, 40% of S. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to penicillin with 18% of strains having high-level resistance (MIC > or =2 mg/l). Rates of erythromycin and clindamycin resistance were 41 and 23%, respectively. Penicillin-resistant strains showed high rates of resistance to other antimicrobial agents: 96% to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), 84% to tetracycline and 81% to erythromycin. A significant proportion of penicillin-susceptible strains was also resistant to erythromycin (21%), tetracycline (29%) and TMP-SMZ (26%). Small numbers of strains were resistant to levofloxacin (0.7%), trovafloxacin (0.4%) and grepafloxacin (1.3%) where as all strains remained uniformly susceptible to quinupristin/dalfopristin and BMS284756 (MIC(90), 0.06 mg/l), a new desfluoroquinolone. beta-lactamases were, produced by 20% H. influenzae isolates and only rare strains showed intrinsic resistance to amoxycillin. Other beta-lactam agents showed good activity with rates of resistance less than 2% and all isolates showed susceptibility to cefixime, ceftibuten, cefepime and cefotaxime. Rates of resistance to tetracycline and chloramphenicol were also relatively low at 3%. The majority (98%) of M. catarrhalis isolates was found to be beta-lactamase-positive and resistant to penicillins, however, resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline was also low at 1.8%. Both H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates were uniformly susceptible to the new desfluoroquinolone and tested fluoroquinolones.
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A week after onset of a pharyngo-tonsillitis a previously healthy 23-year-old man developed high fever (41.4 degrees C), leukocytosis (12,200/microliters) with marked shift to the left, thrombocytopenia (86,000/microliters) and increased transaminases (GOT 83 U/l, GPT 113 U/l). Chest x-ray film suggested intrapulmonary abscesses with left-sided pleural effusion. The suspected diagnosis of "post-tonsillitis" septicaemia (Lemierre's syndrome) was confirmed by demonstrating anaerobic, fusiform, gram-negative bacteria (Fusobacterium nucleatum and necrophorum) in several blood cultures. Despite antibacterial treatment (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, imipenem/cilastatin, clindamycin) he had recurrent pain referred to the kidney region and persisting fever. Repeated ultrasound and radiological examinations revealed new foci in the spleen, which were enlarging. Laparotomy with splenectomy performed on day 17 after the begin of treatment confirmed multiple splenic abscesses, but abscess pus and splenic tissue were sterile. After altogether 6 weeks of antibiotic treatment, finally with chloramphenicol, the patient was discharged in a good general state.
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Forty-five patients applied CLIN/RA once daily to one side of their face every day for 21 days. Patients were randomized to either tretinoin 0.1% (n = 23) or adapalene 0.1% (n = 22) on the contralateral side. A clinical evaluator assessed degree of erythema and scaling; patients provided subjective evaluations of burning, stinging, and itching.