Cases of AOM (873) accounted for 7.1% of the sample. There is a clear variation in the percentage of children diagnosed with AOM and treated with antibiotics in the different locations, antibiotic prescriptions being higher in Barcelona (93% of children), and lowest in Smolensk (56.4 % of children were treated without antibiotics). The antibiotics used varied widely: ampicillin use is almost limited to Smolensk (26.7%) and Bratislava (13.8%), whereas amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid is the choice in Toulouse (33.8%), Valencia (30.2%) and Barcelona (28.9%), and cephalosporins are more frequently prescribed in Tenerife (51.7%). Finally, macrolides are used in Barcelona (18.3%), Valencia (17.5%) and Tenerife (13.6%), but not prescribed in Toulouse or Sofia. Prescriptions of anti-inflammatory drugs were only relevant in Valencia (31.7%), Tenerife (27.2%) and Toulouse (17.4%) and of otological preparations in Sofia, where almost each child received ear drops (91.9%). Nasal preparations are commonly used only in Sofia (41.9%), Bratislava (65.5%) and Smolensk (68.6%).
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Systematic review and meta-analysis. Pooled percentage prevalence of resistance to the most commonly used antibiotics in children in primary care, stratified by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) status of the study country. Random effects meta-analysis was used to quantify the association between previous exposure to antibiotics in primary care and resistance.
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The prevalence and cotrimoxazole susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from sputum of 100 HIV-positive patients attending the Nigeria Institute of Medical Research clinic was investigated using standard microbiological methods. Eleven of the sputum specimens grew Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that all the isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin, augmentin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol but were resistant to cotrimoxazole. Continuous surveillance of S pneumoniae in sputum samples of HIV-positive subjects in this environment is necessary in order to regulate treatment regimen, considering that cotrimoxazole is the drug recommended by WHO for respiratory infections in HIV patients.
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Ultra-short-term prophylaxis with both amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cefazolin is safe in elective laparotomic gynecologic surgery.
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Although the use of systemic antibiotics has been studied in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (formerly rapidly progressive periodontitis), the use of adjunctive tetracycline fibers in these patients has not been reported. The purpose of the present study was to compare the clinical response of local versus systemic antibiotic treatment as adjuncts to scaling and root planing in patients with GAgP.
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In this prospective, double-blind, multicentre trial, adult patients with complicated skin and skin structure infection (cSSSI) randomly received sequential intravenous (i.v.)/oral (p.o.) moxifloxacin (400 mg once a day) or a control regimen of i.v. piperacillin-tazobactam (3.0/0.375 g every 6 h) followed by p.o. amoxicillin-clavulanate (800 mg every 12 h), each for 7-14 days. Clinical cure rates at the test-of-cure visit (10-42 days post therapy) for the efficacy-valid population were 79% (143/180) for the moxifloxacin-treated group and 82% (153/187) for the control group (95% confidence interval, -12.04, 3.29). Bacteriological eradication rates for Staphylococcus aureus, the most prevalent organism, were 78% and 80%, respectively. The incidence of drug-related adverse events was similar for both groups (31% moxifloxacin, 30% control). Sequential i.v./p.o. moxifloxacin was as effective and well tolerated as i.v. piperacillin-tazobactam followed by p.o. amoxicillin-clavulanate in treating patients with cSSSI.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) account for one of the major reasons for most hospital visits and the determination of the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens will help to guide physicians on the best choice of antibiotics to recommend to affected patients. This study is designed to isolate, characterize, and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the pathogens associated with UTI in Anambra State Teaching Hospital, Amaku, Anambra State, Nigeria. Clean catch urine samples of inpatient and outpatient cases of UTI were collected and bacteriologically analyzed using standard microbiological procedures. Antibiogram was done by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The most prevalent isolates were S. aureus (28%), E. coli (24.6%), and S. saprophyticus (20%). The antibacterial activities of the tested agents were in the order of Augmentin < Ceftazidime < Cefuroxime < Cefixime < Gentamicin < Ofloxacin < Ciprofloxacin < Nitrofurantoin. It was found that all the organisms were susceptible in varying degrees to Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin, and Ofloxacin. It was also observed that all the bacterial species except Streptococcus spp. have a Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Index (MARI) greater than 0.2. For empiric treatment of UTIs in Awka locality, Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin, and Ofloxacin are the first line of choice.
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In children, administration of A/C directly into the small bowel before a meal induces phase III-type contractions in the duodenum, with characteristics similar to those present in the fasting state. These data suggest the possible use of A/C as a prokinetic agent. Further studies are needed to clarify its specific mechanism of action and the group of patients most likely to benefit from its use.
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Treatment with oral antibiotics is as effective as parenteral then oral treatment in the management of the first episode of clinical pyelonephritis in children.
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To investigate whether an interaction exists between amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (amoxiclav) and warfarin in patients treated with stable oral anticoagulant therapy.
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Antimicrobial management of an imminent peritonsillar abscess is still under debate. Clinical experience shows that early administration of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid could prevent unilateral peritonsillitis from developing into an abscess. Here we describe two patients who initially received penicillin V treatment. They both recovered but only after the ENT specialist switched their antibiotic treatment to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Although sound evidence is lacking, we suggest that the Practice Guidelines should be revised. In the primary health care setting, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid should become the first drug of choice for patients presenting with unilateral peritonsillar swelling and trismus in situations where the patient is still able to eat and drink and can be seen again within 24 hours.