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There were no significant differences in between the two groups regarding age, gender, height and weight. Even though the clinical scores of Group 2 improved more rapidly, there were no significant differences in between groups regarding clinical scores by the 21st day. There were no significant differences in post treatment radiologic evaluations (Waters graphy). Both groups had significant improvement of their post treatment PNIF values, yet the improvement was more marked in Group 2 than in Group 1. The rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, throat itching and cough symptoms improved more rapidly in Group 2 than in Group 1. Post-treatment nose itching and sneezing symptoms were significantly less in Group 2. The values of hematologic parameters were significantly reduced at the end of the 3rd week in both groups.
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Samples were taken under strictly anaerobic conditions from the root canals of 22 patients having a tooth in which necrotic pulp was associated with an inflammatory peri-apical lesion an optical periodontitis. In the majority of cases (85%), these lesions were chronic and the pulp chamber was closed. One hundred and two strains were isolated, 71.7% of the bacteria being obligate anaerobes and 49.8% being Gram-negative bacilli. Their ability to produce beta-lactamases was tested and 8.8% gave a positive reaction in a cefinase test. These cefinase positive strains were nevertheless susceptible to 3rd-generation cephalosporins (cefoxitin) and to amoxicillin-clavulanate, with the exception of M. Morganii.
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A chronic adverse reaction may occur in some instances of drug-induced liver injury (DILI), even despite drug cessation. In our study, we obtained records from a Spanish registry and evaluated cases of DILI with biochemical evidence of long-term damage. Chronic outcome was defined as a persistent biochemical abnormality of hepatocellular pattern of damage more than 3 months after drug withdrawal or more than 6 months after cholestatic/mixed damage. Data on 28 patients with a chronic clinical evolution (mean follow-up 20 months) between November 1995 and October 2005 were retrieved (18 female; overall mean age 55 yr) and accounted for 5.7% of total idiosyncratic DILI cases (n = 493) submitted to the registry. The main drug classes were cardiovascular and central nervous system (28.5% and 25%, respectively), which, in contrast, represented only 9.8% and 13%, respectively, of all DILI cases. The most frequent causative drugs were amoxicillin-clavulanate (4 of 69 cases), bentazepam (3 of 7 cases), atorvastatin (2 of 7 cases), and captopril (2 of 5 cases). Patients with cholestatic/mixed injury (18 of 194 cases [9%]) were more prone to chronicity than patients with hepatocellular injury (10 of 240 cases; P < .031). In the case of chronic hepatocellular injury, 3 patients progressed to cirrhosis and 2 to chronic hepatitis. In the cholestatic/mixed group, liver biopsy indicated cirrhosis in 1 patient and ductal lesions in 3 patients. In conclusion, cholestatic/mixed type of damage is more prone to become chronic while, in the hepatocellular pattern, the severity is greater. Cardiovascular and central nervous system drugs are the main groups leading to chronic liver damage.
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Mean fecal global yeast counts increased similarly during 7 days of treatment with telithromycin (800 mg once daily) or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (amoxiclav) (1 g of amoxicillin and 125 mg of clavulanic acid 3 times daily) in human volunteers and decreased slowly thereafter. On skin, coagulase-negative staphylococci of decreased susceptibility (DS) to telithromycin increased in the telithromycin group, whereas those with DS to methicillin increased in the amoxiclav group. A similar antibiotic-related shift towards homologous DS was observed for oral nongroupable streptococci (NGS), but in addition, the prevalence of NGS resistant to both classes of antibiotics was significantly greater in the amoxiclav group at days 8 (P < 0.01) and 45 (P < 0.015).
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Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid tablets were obtained from outlets in Cambodia. Packaging condition, printed information, and other sources of information were examined. The samples were tested for quantity, content uniformity, and dissolution. Authenticity was verified with manufacturers and regulatory authorities.
Sixty outpatients at the age of 65 to 75 years with exacerbated chronic bronchitis were treated with antibiotics: amoxycillin/clavulanic acid (20 patients), cefaclor (20 patients) and ciprofloxacin (20 patients). The treatment course in all the cases was 5 days. Bacteriological tests of the sputum specimens and estimation of the isolate antibiotic susceptibility by the disk diffusion method were applied to all the patients before and after the treatment. 73 per cent of the patients had mixed infection. The microflora mainly included various species of streptococci highly susceptible to the drugs (54 per cent) as well as highly susceptible strains of pneumococci and hemophilic bacilli (33 and 17 per cent respectively). Atypical microflora was detected in 10 per cent of the cases. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were isolated in 2 cases. Acinetobacter sp. slightly susceptible only to ciprofloxacin was isolated in 1 case. Citrobacter sp. slightly susceptible to cefaclor and moderately susceptible to ciprofloxacin was detected in 1 case. Enterobacter sp. moderately susceptible only to ciprofloxacin was isolated in 1 case. A positive factor was moderate susceptibility of Proteus mirabilis to all the three drugs. In 24 patients (the average age of 54.7 years) the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin administered under 2 different regimens was studied. The drug was used in a single dose of 400 mg once a day (group 1) or in a dose of 200 mg twice a day (group II) followed by estimation of the drug concentration in the blood and sputum. The pathogen eradication was stated in 61.5 and 72.7 per cent of the patients in groups I and II, respectively. By the results of the treatment with the use of the above mentioned antibiotics in the elderly patients fluoroquinolones should be considered preferable from the clinical and pharmacoeconomic viewpoints.
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In a randomized, multicenter, open-label study, 490 ambulatory adult patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) were randomized to roxithromycin (ROX) 150 mg b.i.d. orally (n = 244) or amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid (AMX + CA) as 500 mg AMX + 125 mg CA t.i.d orally (n = 24). Clinical results were analyzed in 477 patients with acute bronchitis (79%), chronic bronchitis (CB) (14%), and pneumonia (7%). There were significantly more patients with underlying disease (cardiovascular diseases, p = 0.045; and alcoholism, (p less than 0.001), and more patients over the age of 65 years (p = 0.045) in the ROX group. Overall clinical efficacy was similar in both groups: 88% (206:235) in the ROX group and 85% (205:242) in the AMX + CA group. Side effects were reported in 67 cases (28%) in the AMX + CA group and in 21 cases (9%) in the ROX group (p less than 0.0001), causing withdrawal in 21 and three cases, respectively (p less than 0.001). Thus, despite being administered to a significantly older and more ill group of patients with LRTI, roxithromycin was as effective as amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid and better tolerated.
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Seven of 5056 (0.14%) patients, diagnosed with typical erythema migrans, developed the skin lesion despite receiving antibiotics after a tick bite. Antibiotics were prescribed by general physicians: in four cases as prophylaxis of Lyme borreliosis within one day after tick detachment and in three cases because of development of acute respiratory tract infection two, five, and eight days after the bite, respectively. The dosages were as follows: azithromycin in a total dose of 3 g in three patients and 1.5 g in the fourth patient, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 625 mg t.i.d. for ten days in the fifth patient, amoxycillin 500 mg t.i.d. for seven days followed by azithromycin 250 mg o.d. for eight days in the sixth, and amoxycillin 500 mg t.i.d. for eight days in the seventh. The patients (five females and two males, aged 18-61 years) were referred to our Department on average six (1-19) days after the appearance of skin lesions. They had typical solitary (five patients) or multiple (two patients) erythema migrans with the characteristics usually seen in European patients, except for a rather long incubation period (median value 28 days, range 10-40 days). All laboratory tests, including the examination of cerebrospinal fluid in three patients with the disseminated form of the illness, were within normal range. Borrelial antibodies were demonstrated in only one patient. A skin biopsy specimen obtained from the site of the erythema migrans was culture positive for Borrelia in 2/4 patients.
Bacterial counts of Strains 1 and 2 were >or= 6 log(10) reduced with all antibiotics tested at 12 and 24 h. Against Strains 3 and 4, log(10) reductions at 12 and 24 h were significantly higher for cefditoren versus cefuroxime (P < 0.01) (although both exhibited bactericidal activity, i.e. >or= 3 log(10) reduction) and versus the two co-amoxiclav regimens (P < 0.001) (that exhibited negligible initial inocula reductions).