Augmentin (SmithKline Beecham) was used in the treatment of 24 patients after operations on the otorhinolaryngologic organs. The drug was administered orally, intravenously or applied locally. After a radical operation on the maxillary sinus the use of augmentin resulted in a marked decrease of the wound secretion and soft tissue edema on the 6th-7th days. After tonsillectomy cleaning of the tonsil niche from the fibrin patches and the epithelialization started on the 4th-5th days. After operations on the temporal bone cleaning of the postoperative cavity and beginning of the epithelialization were observed on the 9th-10th days. On the whole, the use of augmentin accelerated the cure which was recorded 3-4 days earlier.
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The prescription of antibiotics for women with preterm rupture of the membranes seems to have little effect on the health of children at 7 years of age.
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A study was conducted on the in vitro activity of ampicillin/sulbactam against 100 respiratory strains of Haemophilus influenzae (45 betalactamase positive and 55 betalactamase negative strains) simultaneously isolated during 1997 in 6 Spanish hospitals: Hospital Clínico San Carlos (Madrid), Hospital de Cruces de Basurto (Bilbao), Hospital La Fe (Valencia), Hospital Virgen Macarena (Seville), Hospital de Bellvitge (Barcelona) and Hospital Clínico Universitario (Salamanca). It was studied in comparison to amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin. The MIC breakpoints used for the interpretation of data were those published by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards in 1997. All of the strains tested were susceptible to ampicillin/sulbactam, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime and ciprofloxacin. The rate of resistance to clarithromycin was 55.5% for betalactamase positive strains and 38. 2% for betalactamase negative strains. A total of 23.6% of the betalactamase negative strains were resistant or showed intermediate susceptibility to amoxicillin but were susceptible to betalactam/betalactamase inhibitor combinations and cefuroxime.
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Following stratified random sampling from a major worldwide leech supplier, Hirudo orientalis leeches were identified by visual comparison and amplification and sequencing the cox1 locus. Combined culture and culture-independent approaches were used to characterize the microbiota of the midgut, and bacterial gyrB sequences from distinct colonies were used to identify the Aeromonas isolates. Nonculturable studies involved clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes, and Etests were used to investigate antibiotic sensitivities.
This multicenter, randomized open-label study compared the efficacy and safety of roxithromycin tablets 300 mg once a day (Rx) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid tablets 875+125 mg twice a day (Acx), administered for a mean of 7 days. The study was carried out in five centers on 100 in- or out-patients of both sexes, aged between 18 and 91 years (mean 38+/-14). All patients suffered from ENT diseases, 85% with acute otitis media, 31% pharyngotonsillitis and 11% rhinosinusitis. The patients were divided into two randomized groups of 50 patients each. Clinical evaluations (signs and symptoms) were performed before, during and at the end of therapy. At the end of therapy, for intent-to-treat and per-protocol populations, a satisfactory overall clinical response was achieved by 82% of patients in the Rx group and 78% in the Acx group with similar reductions in signs and symptoms of disease in both groups. Safety was good, with only 2 patients of the Rx group and 4 patients of the Acx group presenting side effects, involving mainly the gastrointestinal system. Rx appears to be active and safe in the therapy of ENT diseases exhibiting similar effects on the reduction of signs and symptoms as Amx but with better compliance because of once-a-day administration.
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the presence of plasmid pB1000 in a non-typeable H. influenzae isolated in Italy, BB1059, is reported in this work. This strain is not genetically related to the H. influenzae clinical isolates bearing pB1000 described in Spain. The sequence of ftsI from BB1059 revealed several mutations in the predicted amino acid sequence of PBP3. To determine the relative contribution of pB1000 and PBP3 mutations to the β-lactam resistance phenotype of BB1059, H. influenzae Rd KW20 was transformed with ftsI and/or pB1000 from BB1059. β-Lactam resistance profiles revealed the additive effect of pB1000 and PBP3 mutations conferring resistance to β-lactams, including amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and third-generation cephalosporins.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference between the effects of a 5-day and a 1-day course of antibiotics on the incidence of postoperative infection after displaced fractures of the orbit. A total of 62 patients with orbital blow-out fractures were randomly assigned to two groups, both of which were given amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 1.2g intravenously every 8h from the time of admission to 24h postoperatively. The 5-day group were then given amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 625 mg orally every 8h for 4 further days. The 1-day group were given placebo orally at the same time intervals. Follow up appointments were 1, 2, 4, 6, and 12 weeks, and 6 months, postoperatively. An infection in the orbital region was the primary end point. Sixty of the 62 patients completed the study. Two of the 29 patients in the 5-day group (6.8%) and 1/31 patients in the 1-day group (3.2%) developed local infections. In the 5-day group 1 patient developed diarrhoea. In the 1-day group 1 patient developed a rash on the trunk. There were no significant differences in the incidence of infection or side effects between the groups. We conclude that in displaced orbital fractures a postoperative 1-day course of antibiotics is as effective in preventing infective complications as a 5-day regimen.
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Amoxycillin and clavulanic acid (Augmentin; Beecham Research Laboratories) was used to treat patients with bacteriologically proved chancroid in three different dose regimens. A single dose of Augmentin (amoxycillin 3 g, clavulanic acid 350 mg) was found to be ineffective. A similar dose repeated after 24 hours was equally ineffective, but a dose (amoxycillin 500 mg, clavulanic acid 250 mg) given every 8 hours for three days was found to be effective. The drug was well tolerated and no side effects were noted in any of the patients treated.
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In medical practice, antibiotics are generally given empirically for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB). To be effective, antibiotic therapy should be broad in spectrum, and it should also cover the common beta-lactamase-producing pathogens. In this multicenter, randomized, investigator-masked study, 469 patients with AECB were randomized (in a ratio of 2:1) to receive 400-mg oral ceftibuten capsules once daily or 500-mg amoxicillin-clavulanate tablets three times daily for 5 to 15 days. Patients receiving ceftibuten were further divided into those who took the capsule with a meal (fed) and those who took the capsule 1 hour before a meal (fasted). Clinical and microbiologic responses were evaluated after treatment at 0 to 6 days (end of treatment) and 7 to 21 days (follow-up). Overall clinical success was determined by cure/improvement of signs and symptoms of AECB at the end of treatment and at follow-up. Overall microbiologic assessment was graded as eradication, persistence, relapse, reinfection, colonization, superinfection, or unassessable. Tolerability was evaluated by grading observed adverse events. The mean duration of treatment was 10.4 days for patients who received ceftibuten and 10.1 days for patients who received amoxicillin-clavulanate. A total of 252 patients receiving ceftibuten and 117 patients receiving amoxicillin-clavulanate were evaluable for clinical efficacy, and 55 patients were evaluable for microbiologic response. Both treatments improved the signs and symptoms of bronchitis, and overall clinical success rates were equivalent for patients treated with ceftibuten (211 of 252 [84%]) and amoxicillin-clavulanate (93 of 117 [79%]) (95% confidence interval [CI], -4.5% to 13.6%). Overall microbiologic eradication rates were also similar for patients treated with ceftibuten (36 of 37 [97%]) and amoxicillin-clavulanate (12 of 14 [86%]) (95% CI, -5.2% to 21.2%). The most frequently reported treatment-related adverse events were gastrointestinal disturbances, which occurred in 15% (47 of 316) and 24% (36 of 152) of patients treated with ceftibuten and amoxicillin-clavulanate, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the ceftibutenfed and ceftibuten-fasted groups in overall clinical assessments of the clinical efficacy population and safety population. In conclusion, 400 mg oral ceftibuten once daily has a similar clinical success rate to 500 mg amoxicillin-clavulanate three times daily, with a trend toward fewer gastrointestinal side effects, in the treatment of patients with AECB.