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With many women turning to the ED as a source of primary care, it is essential for pharmacists involved in providing ED services to guide the selection of appropriate antiinfective agents during pregnancy and lactation; this area of practice is complicated by the very limited body of published data on the safety and efficacy of maternal antimicrobial use and potential fetal or neonatal adverse effects. Infectious diseases commonly encountered in the ED include sexually transmitted diseases, bacterial vaginosis and other vaginal infections, respiratory and urinary tract infections, and pneumonia. Recommended first-line therapies for pregnant or lactating women may differ from those recommended for other patient populations. Although some widely used antiinfective classes and agents are generally considered safe for use in pregnant women, others (e.g., clarithromycin, fluoroquinolones) have been linked to birth defects and neonatal adverse effects. In addition to guiding ED practitioners in the appropriate use of antiinfective agents in pregnant women and nursing mothers, pharmacists can reinforce the importance of appropriate follow-up care (including specialist referral or culture testing in some cases) and ongoing preventive health measures such as vaccine administration.
A decision analysis to examine the cost effectiveness of eight H pylori eradication strategies for duodenal ulcer disease with and without 13C-urea breath testing to confirm eradication.
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From 1997 to 1999, 94 study centers in 15 European, 3 North American, and 2 South American countries contributed 2,632 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae to an international antimicrobial susceptibility testing study. Only 62.0% of isolates were susceptible to penicillin, while 22.3% were penicillin intermediate and 15.6% were penicillin resistant. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (24.4%), azithromycin (26.0%), and clarithromycin (27.1%) was also highly prevalent. For the penicillin-resistant isolates (n = 411), the MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC(90)s) for gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin were 0.03, 1, 2, >16, and >64 microgram/ml, respectively. Similarly, for isolates resistant to both azithromycin and clarithromycin (n = 649), gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, and penicillin MIC(90)s were 0.03, 1, 2, and 4 microgram/ml, respectively. Overall rates of resistance to trovafloxacin (0.3%), levofloxacin (0.3%), grepafloxacin (0.6%), and ofloxacin (0.7%) were low. For ofloxacin-intermediate and -resistant isolates (n = 142), gemifloxacin had the lowest MIC(90) (0.12 microgram/ml) compared to the MIC(90)s of trovafloxacin (0.5 microgram/ml), grepafloxacin (1 microgram/ml), and levofloxacin (2 microgram/ml). For all S. pneumoniae isolates tested, gemifloxacin MICs were =0.5 microgram/ml, suggesting that gemifloxacin has the potential to be used as a treatment for pneumococcal infections, including those arising from isolates resistant to beta-lactams and macrolides.
Our data suggest a clear- cut correlation between fever, the release of IL-6 and oxaliplatin administration. Whether IL-6 release is directly triggered by the application of oxaliplatin or is a bystander phenomenon, however, remains unclear at the moment.
Gastritis is a broad term, which is used for different conditions by clinicians, endoscopists and pathologists. Classification strategies have led to more congruence between specialists. The histological evaluation of the gastric mucosa is mandatory for diagnosing and classifying gastritis. Main aetiologic factor is infection with Helicobacter pylori. The clinical importance of gastritis lays in the fact that it predisposes to more pronounced damage to the gastric mucosa, in particular peptic ulcer disease, and eventually atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and gastric malignancy, both adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma.
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We hypothesized that bacterial biofilm formation could be an important factor that makes some infections intractable, and conducted the following study to confirm the role of bacterial biofilm in airway infection. We first microscopically examined airway surface in patients with an intractable airway infection and detected bacterial biofilms adhering to the airway surface. Most of the airway biofilm diseases were diffuse panbronchiolitis and bronchiectasia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Klebsiella pneumoniae. In vivo examination revealed that chemotaxis of neutrophils in patients with biofilm bacteria was less than that in patients with floating type bacteria. Interaction of Pseudomonas biofilm with antibacterial agents was examined in vitro. The rate of survival of biofilm bacteria was higher than that of floating bacteria in contact with twice the minimal bactericidal concentration of ciprofloxacin (CPFX) or two to 10 times the minimal inhibitory concentration of cefclidin and meropenem which are highly potent antibacterial agents against P. aeruginosa. Additionally, the effects of clarithromycin (CAM) on biofilm bacteria were studied in order to investigate new therapeutic maneuvers against a bacterial biofilm. Also, the combination of CPFX and CAM was more effective in decreasing the bacterial survival rate than CPFX alone. The results suggest that administration CAM can be one of the therapeutic maneuvers against biofilm bacteria.
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We isolated 103 H. pylori strains from the gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected patients from 2 areas in Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh and Hanoi) in 2008. Epsilometer test was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin, clarithromycin (CLR), metronidazole (MNZ), levofloxacin, and tetracycline.
This review did not find sufficient evidence to support the use of antibiotics for bronchiolitis, although research may be justified to identify a subgroup of patients who may benefit from antibiotics. Further research may be better focused on determining the reasons that clinicians use antibiotics so readily for bronchiolitis, how to reduce their use and how to reduce clinician anxiety about not using antibiotics.
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This two-phase, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study consisted of a 4-week treatment phase followed by a 24-week post-treatment observation phase. Patients with an active duodenal ulcer were treated with either ranitidine bismuth citrate 400 mg b.d. for 4 weeks plus clarithromycin 500 mg t.d.s. for the first 2 weeks; ranitidine bismuth citrate 400 mg b.d. for 4 weeks plus placebo t.d.s. for first 2 weeks; placebo b.d. for 4 weeks plus clarithromycin 500 mg t.d.s. for the first 2 weeks; or placebo b.d. for 4 weeks plus placebo t.d.s. for the first 2 weeks.
Halitosis and dyspepsia-related symptoms were investigated by way of a questionnaire. Only patients with functional dyspepsia, H. pylori infection and no histological evidence of atrophy were included in the study. A total of 18 patients fulfilled these criteria and completed the study. Four to six weeks after the end of eradication treatment, endoscopy or [(13)C] breath test was performed to check for H. pylori in the gastric mucosa. Halitosis and dyspeptic symptoms were re-evaluated during and at the end of follow-up.
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Pulmonary nocardiosis frequently occurs in immunocompromised hosts and in some immunocompetent hosts with chronic lung disease; however, few reports have described pulmonary nocardiosis with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung infection. Here we report for the first time two cases of pulmonary nocardiosis caused by Nocardia cyriacigeorgica associated with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease caused by M. avium.
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Three hundred and forty-two H. pylori positive patients completed the study. They were randomised to receive one of the following treatments: (i) a 7-day triple therapy comprising of rabeprazole (20 mg, b.i.d.) plus clarithromycin (500 mg, b.i.d.) and amoxycillin (1 g, b.i.d.); (ii) a 10-day triple therapy comprising the same scheme; (iii) a 10-day sequential regimen comprising of rabeprazole (20 mg, b.i.d.) plus amoxycillin (1 g, b.i.d.) for 5 days followed by rabeprazole (20 mg, b.i.d.) plus clarithromycin (500 mg, b.i.d.) and tinidazole (500 mg, b.i.d.) for the next 5 days. Therapeutic results were expressed using both intention-to-treat and per protocol analyses with 95% confidence intervals. A model of multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using therapeutic outcome as a dependent variable and including endoscopic finding, smoking habit, age and sex as candidates for the model.