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The hepatic and intestinal cytochrome, or CY, P450 enzyme system is responsible for the biotransformation of a multitude of drugs. Certain medications used in dentistry can act as substrates, inducers or inhibitors of this system.
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The subjects were 150 H. pylori-positive patients. They were randomly assigned to one of two regimens for 2 weeks: sucralfate 1 g t.d.s., amoxycillin 500 mg t.d.s., and clarithromycin 400 mg b.d. (SAC regimen: 75 patients); or lansoprazole 30 mg o.m. with the same antimicrobial medications (LAC regimen: 75 patients). Cure of infection was assessed by a 13C urea breath test 1 month after completion of treatment.
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Seventy patients were treated, of whom four were excluded from analysis due to major deviations from the study protocol. Eradication of H. pylori was achieved in 57/66 patients (per protocol analysis 86% (95% CI: 78-95%)) and was higher in patients with organisms sensitive to nitroimidazole before treatment (sensitive: 47/53 (89%), insensitive: 10/13 (77%)). There was marked reduction in acute gastritis throughout the stomach while chronic gastritis decreased only in the corpus. Healing was achieved in all 24 patients with active duodenal ulcer. Treatment was complied with; only one patient missed one of the 20 doses. Adverse events were of mild or moderate intensity and did not require withdrawal from treatment.
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Thirty-six H. pylori-positive patients who had previously failed a clarithromycin-containing sequential therapy enrolled the study. They received pantoprazole (40 mg-bid), amoxicillin (1 g-bid), and bismuth subcitrate (240 mg-bid) for 2 weeks and furazolidone (200 mg-bid) just during the first week. Eight weeks after treatment, H. pylori eradication was reassessed using C14-urea breath test.
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One hundred ninety-six Mycobacterium avium isolates from blood samples recovered from 93 AIDS patients for several months were typed by serotyping, by IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and in some cases RFLP analysis with plasmids pVT2 and pLR7 as probes, and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PCR typing of single colonies was also used to detect polyclonal infections. Strains belonged mainly to serotypes 1, 4, and 8. pVT2- and pLR7-related plasmids were detected in strains from 49% of the patients. The IS1245 RFLP and PFGE analyses showed a 96.8% diversity of the M. avium strains from the 93 patients. The vast majority (95.2%) of infections were monoclonal, indicating that recent infection is unlikely, even at an advanced stage of AIDS. For one patient, sequential isolates gave divergent patterns of sensitivity and resistance to clarithromycin, but all were identified as the initial clone. RFLP analysis and PCR typing of single colonies allowed for the detection of three polyclonal infections during the bacteriological follow-up. Among strains from patients whose samples were positive by culture after treatment for 2 to 15 months, 97.4% were the same as the initial strain. In conclusion, relapses and failures were mostly due to the initial strain. These relapses and failures resulted either from the selection of resistant mutants or the reappearance of sensitive strains, suggesting the persistence of nonsterilized tissue reservoirs.
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The prevalence of resistance in H. pylori is high to metronidazole but low to clarithromycin in the Chinese population. The disk diffusion test appears to be a simple and reliable test, while antibiotic resistance in some H. pylori strains may disappear after long-term storage at -80 degrees C.
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During the period from 1995 to 1998 we determined the sensitivity of 235 consecutive Helicobacter pylori isolates to amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarythromycin and tetracycline by means of E-test methodology. The MIC values found were related with the prior use of eradicating treatment.
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Patients failing maximal therapy were commenced prospectively on a combination of rifabutin (450 mg/d), clarithromycin (750 mg/d) and clofazimine (2 mg/kg/d). Progress was monitored through colonoscopy, histology, clinical response and Harvey-Bradshaw activity index.
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In an open therapeutic trial, 30 H. pylori-positive patients with active ulcer disease took 30 mg lansoprazole twice a day and 400 mg clarithromycin twice a day for the first 2 weeks, followed by 30 mg lansoprazole once a day for 4-6 weeks. Endoscopy was performed both before and at the end of therapy, and 4 weeks after the end of the therapy. H. pylori was detected by using a combination of smear, culture and tissue sections.