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In an open, randomized, two-period crossover study the pharmacokinetics of linezolid and co-amoxiclav were investigated after single- and multiple-dose administration in 12 healthy volunteers (six females and six males). Linezolid was given in tablets of 600 mg twice a day for 7 days and co-amoxiclav in tablets of 1000 mg (875 + 125 mg) once a day for 7 days. The wash-out period was 4 weeks between the administration of the two antibacterial agents. Blood and urine samples were collected on days 1 and 7 before and at different time points up to 24 h after medication. The concentrations of the antibiotics in serum and urine were measured by validated high-performance liquid chromatography methods. Linezolid exhibited a mean C(max) of 14.5 +/- 4.6 mg/L after T(max) of 47.5 +/- 20.1 min on day 1, with a significant increase to 24.0 +/- 6.9 mg/L on day 7 (P < 0.01). The AUD(tot) (total area under the data) revealed a significant increase from 140.5 +/- 28.3 mg.h/L on day 1 to 220.2 +/- 42.6 mg.h/L on day 7 (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in terminal elimination half-life between days 1 and 7 (9.53 +/- 2.87 versus 7.97 +/- 3.08 h) or in total clearance (71.6 +/- 17.6 versus 81.5 +/- 14.7 ml/min.1.73 m(2)). Results are in agreement with the assumption of a limited accumulation of linezolid under the dosage regimen given. Serum linezolid concentrations in females were always higher than those in males. The volume of distribution V(ss)/f differed significantly between females and males (41.6 +/- 4.2 versus 52.2 +/- 3.3 L/70 kg; P < 0.01). Pharmacokinetic parameters of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid found in this study were similar to previously published data. No accumulation was found with co-amoxiclav. No serious adverse event was observed with the study drugs.
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To determine whether treatment of H pylori infection reduces the incidence of gastric cancer.
Topical medication based on netilmicin, associated with Benzalkonium-Chloride, showed a clinical and microbiological effectiveness in first-line treatment of bacterial vulvovaginitis in children, comparable to conventional drugs; so local treatment may be a good alternative to systemic treatment decreasing the use of oral antibiotics in young people and related risks of bacterial resistances.
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This report presents a prospective randomized study of 0.3 percent ofloxacin eardrops for the treatment of active chronic suppurative otitis media. Twenty-nine patients were treated with ofloxacin eardrops for 1 week, and another 27 patients were treated with Augmentin for 1 week. One week after completion of treatment, 22 (76%) patients of the group treated with ofloxacin had dry ears, and only seven (26%) patients treated with Augmentin had dry ears. Ofloxacin eardrops were effective in the initial treatment of active chronic suppurative otitis media.
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Costs and consequences over 21 days were evaluated based on clinical cure rates 5 to 7 days after treatment and health resource use reported for the TARGET multinational, prospective, randomized, open-label trial. This trial compared sequential i.v./po monotherapy with moxifloxacin (400 mg qd) to i.v./po co-amoxiclav (1.2 g i.v./625 mg po tid) with or without clarithromycin (500 mg bid) for 7 to 14 days in hospitalized patients with CAP. Since no country-by-treatment interaction was found in spite of some country differences for length of hospital stays, resource data (antimicrobial treatment, hospitalization, and out-of-hospital care) from all centers were pooled and valued using German and French unit prices to estimate CAP-related cost to the German Sickness Funds and French public health-care sector, respectively.
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A total of 231 febrile under-fives were enrolled in the study. Of all the children, 20.3% (47/231, 95%CI, 15.10-25.48), 9.5% (22/231, 95%CI, 5.72-13.28) and 7.4% (17/231, 95%CI, 4.00-10.8) had urinary tract infections, P. falciparum malaria and bacteremia respectively. In general, 11.5% (10/87, 95%CI, 8.10-14.90) of the children had two infections and only one child had all three infections. Predictors of urinary tract infections (UTI) were dysuria (OR = 12.51, 95% CI, 4.28-36.57, P < 0.001) and body temperature (40-41 C) (OR = 12.54, 95% CI, 4.28-36.73, P < 0.001). Predictors of P. falciparum severe malaria were pallor (OR = 4.66 95%CI, 1.21-17.8, P = 0.025) and convulsion (OR = 102, 95% CI, 10-996, P = 0.001). Escherichia coli were the common gram negative isolates from urine (72.3%, 95% CI, 66.50-78.10) and blood (40%, 95%CI, and 33.70-46.30). Escherichia coli from urine were 100% resistant to ampicillin, 97% resistant to co-trimoxazole, 85% resistant to augmentin and 32.4% resistant to gentamicin; and they were 100%, 91.2% and 73.5% sensitive to meropenem, ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone respectively.
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Subgingival plaque samples from patients with periodontitis were collected and cultured on selective and nonselective culture media. The antimicrobial susceptibility of periodontopathogenic isolates was studied in chronic periodontitis patients in Colombia. Metronidazole, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, clindamycin and moxifloxacin were tested on all bacterial isolates and the percentage of resistant strains was calculated.
The proportion of postoperative surgical site or distant infections recorded before or at the 4-week follow-up visit.
The incidence of antimicrobial resistance and expressed and unexpressed resistance genes among commensal Escherichia coli isolated from healthy farm animals at slaughter in Great Britain was investigated. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among the isolates varied according to the animal species; of 836 isolates from cattle tested only 5.7% were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, while only 3.0% of 836 isolates from sheep were resistant to one or more agents. However, 92.1% of 2480 isolates from pigs were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Among isolates from pigs, resistance to some antimicrobials such as tetracycline (78.7%), sulphonamide (66.9%) and streptomycin (37.5%) was found to be common, but relatively rare to other agents such as amikacin (0.1%), ceftazidime (0.1%) and coamoxiclav (0.2%). The isolates had a diverse range of resistance gene profiles, with tet(B), sul2 and strAB identified most frequently. Seven out of 615 isolates investigated carried unexpressed resistance genes. One trimethoprim-susceptible isolate carried a complete dfrA17 gene but lacked a promoter for it. However, in the remaining six streptomycin-susceptible isolates, one of which carried strAB while the others carried aadA, no mutations or deletions in gene or promoter sequences were identified to account for susceptibility. The data indicate that antimicrobial resistance in E. coli of animal origin is due to a broad range of acquired genes.