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Treatment of gonorrhoea is threatened by antimicrobial resistance, and decreased susceptibility and resistance to recommended therapies is emerging in Europe. Current associations between resistance and molecular type remain poorly understood. Gonococcal isolates (n=1,066) collected for the 2009 and 2010 European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme were typed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). A total of 406 sequence types (STs) were identified, 125 of which occurred in ≥two isolates. Seven major genogroups of closely related STs (varying by ≤1% at just one of the two target loci) were defined. Genogroup 1407 (G1407), observed in 20/21 countries and predominant in 13/21 countries, accounted for 23% of all isolates and was associated with decreased susceptibility to cefixime and resistance to ciprofloxacin and raised minimum inhibitory concentrations for ceftriaxone and azithromycin. Genogroup 225 (G225), associated with ciprofloxacin resistance, was observed in 10% of isolates from 19/21 countries. None of the other genogroups were associated with antimicrobial resistance. The predominance of a multidrug-resistant clone (G1407) in Europe is worrying given the recent reports of recommended third generation cephalosporins failing to treat infections with this clone. Identifying associations between ST and antimicrobial resistance aids the understanding of the dissemination of resistant clones within a population and could facilitate development of targeted intervention strategies.
A highly selective, sensitive and rapid high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated to quantify gemifloxacin in human plasma. The gemifloxacin and internal standard (ciprofloxacin) were extracted by ultrafiltration technique followed by injection into chromatographic system. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed phase C(18) column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile:0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (20:80, v/v) using isocratic elution (at flow rate 1 mL min(-1)). The analytes were detected at 269 and 393 nm for excitation and emission, respectively. The assay exhibited a linear range of 25-5000 ng mL(-1) for gemifloxacin in human plasma. The lower limit of detection was 10 ng mL(-1). The method was statistically validated for linearity, accuracy, precision and selectivity following FDA guidelines. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation did not exceed 7.6% deviation of the nominal concentration. The recovery of gemifloxacin from plasma was greater than 97.0%. Stability of gemifloxacin in plasma was excellent with no evidence of degradation during sample processing (auto-sampler) and at least 3 months storage in a freezer at -70 °C. This validation method is applied for clinical study of the gemifloxacin in human volunteers.
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It is estimated that 50% of patients who have undergone ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) surgery for UC will develop at least one episode of pouchitis. The risk of developing pouchitis is much higher in patients with preoperative extraintestinal manifestations and primary sclerosing cholangitis. In acute pouchtis metronidazole or ciprofloxacin have shown efficacy, however there is some evidence that ciprofloxacin may have better and has less toxic. In patients with chronic pouchitis antibiotics are less effective, and maintenance therapy may be required. In cases of refractoriness to conventional therapy a combination of two antibiotics for a prolonged period or infliximab may be effective. Starting maintenance treatment with highly concentrated probiotics is recommended as primary and secondary prophylaxis.
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Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) recruiting people with venous leg ulceration, evaluating at least one systemic antibiotic, topical antibiotic or topical antiseptic that reported an objective assessment of wound healing (e.g. time to complete healing, frequency of complete healing, change in ulcer surface area) were eligible for inclusion. Selection decisions were made by two review authors while working independently.
With the aim of improving the solubility of ciprofloxacin, polybasic organic acids were utilized to react with ciprofloxacin in different stoichiometric proportions. The use of the solvent drop grinding (SDG) method, as well as the solvent evaporation method, resulted in the crystalline salts ciprofloxacin/fumaric acid (1:1, 2:1), ciprofloxacin/maleic acid (1:1) and ciprofloxacin/citric acid (2:1). The solubilities of these salts in pure water (pH 7.0) were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at 310 K, with the salts showing considerably greater solubility than ciprofloxacin itself and, interestingly, ciprofloxacin/fumaric acid (2:1) being more soluble than ciprofloxacin/fumaric acid (1:1). Intrigued by this phenomenon, we undertook a comparison of the crystal structures of the salts: the three-dimensional sandwich-like structure observed in the 2:1 salt indicates that the preferred stacking may be a factor in increasing the solubility of ciprofloxacin.
Nocardiosis is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised host, and is an infrequent complication of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) blockers in chronic inflammatory diseases. Nocardiosis occurs at a rate of 3.55 and 0.88 per 100 000 patients treated with infliximab or etanercept, respectively. Disseminated nocardiosis remains an uncommon complication of these agents. Here, we present a fatal case of disseminated systemic nocardiosis in a patient with psoriasis following sequential therapy with alefacept and then infliximab therapy. The patient developed disseminated disease involving the brain, lymph nodes, and adrenal glands. The diagnosis was made by blood culture and aspiration of the adrenal gland abscess, which revealed Gram-positive bacilli and later grew Nocardia farcinica. The organism was identified by DNA sequencing, and was susceptible to moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, linezolid, sulfamethoxazole, and amikacin. It was resistant to clarithromycin, ceftriaxone, and tobramycin and was intermediately susceptible to imipenem.
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This in vitro study examined the combined effects of double antibacterial drugs against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP). The tested clinical isolates from Hiroshima University Hospital were 40 strains which met the criteria for MDRP, that is, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was > or = 16 microg/mL of meropenem, > or = 4 microg/mL of ciprofloxacin and > or = 32 microg/mL of amikacin. Using the original checkerboard plates for colistin (CL), arbekacin (ABK), aztreonam (AZT), rifampicin (RFP) and piperacillin (PIPC), MIC values were determined for single and double combinations. Based on the MIC values, fractional inhibitory concentration index values were calculated and the combined effects (synergy action or additive action) were evaluated. The three strongest drugs among the tested combinations were i) CL + RFP (synergy, 80.0%; additive, 17.5%), ii) RFP + ABK (synergy, 7.5%; additive, 70.0%) and iii) RFP + AZT (synergy, 5.0%; additive, 77.5%). In these cases, the arithmetic mean MIC value of each drug significantly decreased as follows: i) 1.38 microg/mL (alone) and 0.26 microg/mL (with RFP) for CL, 19.85 microg/mL (alone) and 1.85 microg/mL (with CL) for RFP; ii) 19.85 microg/mL (alone) and 7.53 microg/mL (with ABK) for RFP, 8.87 microg/mL (alone) and 2.79 microg/mL (with RFP) for ABK; iii) 19.85 microg/mL (alone) and 10.15 microg/mL (with AZT) for RFP, 28.3 microg/ mL (alone) and 6.65 microg/mL (with RFP) for AZT. Of 40 strains, metallo-beta-lactamase and aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase were found in 20 and 37 strains, respectively; however, no significant influence of these factors was observed on the combined effects of i), ii) and iii). The results of this study provide an in vitro rationale for RFP plus CL, ABK or AZT as an effective combination therapy for MDRP infections, although the results should be verified and compared with other antibacterial drugs in further studies.
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Shigellosis is a major public health concern worldwide, especially in developing countries. It is an acute intestinal infection caused by bacteria of the genus Shigella, with a minimum infective dose as low as 10-100 bacterial cells. Increasing prevalence of Shigella sonnei as the etiologic agent of shigellosis in Malaysia has been reported. As there is limited information on the genetic background of S. sonnei in Malaysia, this study aimed to characterize Malaysian S. sonnei and to evaluate the prospect of using multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) for subtyping of local S. sonnei.
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Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare condition caused by the hematogenous spread of microorganisms from a remote infection site to the eye. Common predisposing conditions are intravenous drug abuse, diabetes, malignancy, immunosuppression, chronic renal failure, parenteral nutrition or invasive medical procedures. We describe a case of endogenous endophthalmitis in the setting of foot osteomyelitis in a patient with diabetes. A high index of clinical suspicion is required to diagnose this condition early in a patient with diabetes because visual symptoms commonly may be misattributed to retinopathy. Early diagnosis is important.