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Staphylococcal isolates from different clinical specimens, pus, urine, blood, high vaginal swab and other secretions received at Ziauddun laboratories and Dr.Essa laboratories were collected. The specimens were inoculated on blood agar, MacConkey agar and Chrom agar. Antibiotic susceptibility to conventional antibiotics was done by disc diffusion, and E-test. Methicillin resistance was tested by using Oxacillin and Methicillin disks and confirmed by gold standard PCR for presence of mecA gene. All MRSA strains were subjected in addition to Vancomycin screen agar test.
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The data of 577 culture-proven endophthalmitis isolates collected between April 2004 and April 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. The antibiotic sensitivities were determined according to the criteria of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The changes in antibiotic susceptibility over the 10 years were subjected to χ(2) tests for trends.
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In this study, we investigated a waterborne tularemia outbreak occured in Kadiozu, a village of Cerkes county of Cankiri province (located in North-west part of central Anatolia, Turkey) between 18 November 2009-24 December 2009. Active surveillance was conducted to determine clinical characteristics and risk factors of cases after two patients from the same village had been diagnosed as oropharyngeal tularemia. All villagers were examined, and clinical specimens from cases and water samples which may be the source of outbreak in the field investigations were taken. Cases were in the form of oropharyngeal, glandular and pneumonic. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cultures were conducted from lymph node aspirates, throat swabs taken from cases and samples from water sources of epidemic zone. All serum samples taken from the villagers were screened for F.tularensis antibodies with microagglutination test (MAT). Oropharyngeal tularemia was diagnosed in 11 patients, glandular form in 3 patients and pneumonic form in one patient according to clinical and laboratory results. Age of the patients ranged between 6-75 years old (mean age: 52.5 years) and thirty one of them (54.7%) were female. MAT titers ranged between 1/160 and 1/5120 in cases of tularemia. Causative agent was grown in the cultures of two patients (including a throat swab and a lymph node aspirate). F.tularensis DNA was shown by PCR in a throat swab and four lymph node aspirates. F.tularensis was also detected by PCR in the water sample obtained from one of the spring water commonly used by villagers. Only one of the lymph node samples obtained from two different patients, was positive by direct fluorescent antibody method. Causative agent was defined as F.tularensis subsp. holarctica by conventional and also molecular methods. Patients were treated with aminoglycoside (streptomycin, gentamicin, amikacin) or quinolone (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin) antibiotics. Treatment failure was observed in five patients, due to the delay in initiating treatment. Comparison of characteristics and risk factors for tularemia cases versus controls yielded age and contact with rodent excreta at home as potential risk factors (p= 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). The epidemic was controlled after cleaning the tank collecting spring water and chlorination of the water. Tularemia which is an emerging disease in Turkey is spreading to non-endemic regions and represent a significant threat for public health.
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We examined bactericidal activity of four types of fluoroquinolones, garenoxacin (GRNX), levofloxacin (LVFX), ciprofloxacin (CPFX) and sitafloxacin (STFX) against current isolates of P. aeruginosa (50 strains).
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Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been associated with serious urinary tract infections (UTIs) including pyelonephritis and urosepsis. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a label change to include this warning in December 2015 due to a small number of cases (n = 19) reported to the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System. Details of these cases are limited and none involved empagliflozin. To date, there has been no published literature comprehensively describing serious UTIs attributed to empagliflozin. We describe a case of septic shock due to Serratia marcescens pyelonephritis and bacteremia that required intensive care unit admission in a well-controlled, type 2 diabetic patient who had begun taking empagliflozin 2 months prior. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous antibiotics followed by oral ciprofloxacin. After discontinuation of empagliflozin and completion of antibiotic therapy, no subsequent UTIs were documented in the following 4 months.
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Cytotoxicity was defined as a significant (p < 0.05) difference in cell number measured as mean calcein fluorescence product versus control for each fluoroquinolone concentration-time exposure.
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All cases had a history of corneal trauma, there was corneal metallic foreign body removal at one hospital in 11 cases, corneal reed trauma in 1 case. The characteristic signs involved grayish-blue crystalloid keratopathy, multifocal infiltrates, satellites, radical form changes in the Descemet's membrane. The results of laboratory examinations of the scrapings of the cornea infection were as follows: all cultures (12/12) were positive for rapidly growing mycobacteria, and isolates from 5 patients were all diagnosed as mycobacterium chelonae subspecies abscess; acid-fast staining revealed positive bacilli in all the 4 patients; seven of 8 patients were positive for bacterium by PCR. Transmission electron microscopy in all the 3 specimens showed many slender rod-shaped or short coarse-shaped bacteria which were phagocytized by monocytes, and some necrotic tissue. Infections in 10 eyes were resolved by combined treatment regimen including a combination of antimicrobial agents (amikacin, rifampin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin and/or ofloxacin, etc.) and local lesion cleaning followed by cauterization with 5% tincture of iodine within 2-5 months; two cases resolved by keratoplasty which poorly responded to antibiotic therapy for 6 months.
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We observed a dose-dependent reduction in biofilm growth on an abiotic surface and in association with CF airway epithelial cells. WLBU2 prevented P. aeruginosa biofilm formation when co-cultured with mucus-producing primary human CF airway epithelial cells and using CF clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, even at low pH and high salt conditions that mimic the CF airway. When used in combination, WLBU2 significantly increases killing by the commonly used antibiotics tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime and meropenem.