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The synthesis of a novel functional biomaterial for wound healing treatment was carried out by adopting a free-radical grafting procedure in aqueous media. With this aim, ciprofloxacin (CFX) was covalently incorporated into collagen (T1C) chains employing an ascorbic acid/hydrogen peroxide redox pair as biocompatible initiator system. The covalent insertion of CFX in the polymeric chains was confirmed by FT-IR and UV analyses, while an antibacterial assay demonstrated the activity of the synthesized conjugate against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, microorganisms that commonly infect wounds. A catechin blended conjugate was also tested in order to evaluate the ability to influence fibroblast cell growth. The observed antibacterial activity and stimulation of fibroblast growth support the applicability of CFX-T1C conjugate in wound treatment encouraging the healing process.
Patients received 2, 4, or 6 mg/kg of intravenous aflibercept with docetaxel 75 mg/m2, cisplatin 75 mg/m2, and 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/m2 in 3-week cycles until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Primary objectives were to evaluate dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) during cycle 1 and to determine the recommended phase II dose. Pharmacokinetics, tolerability, and antitumor activity were also investigated.
We have demonstrated the efficacy of PVP-CD loaded with appropriate antibiotics both in-vitro and in-vivo against six of the most common bacteria involved in human SVGI.
Korean red ginseng (KRG) may be a beneficial adjuvant along with ciprofloxacin to ameliorate devastating effects of epididymo-orchitis (EO) on male fertility. This study intends to assay the effects of KRG and ciprofloxacin on sperm quality and spermatogenic cells apoptosis in EO rats. We divided 54 adult rats into nine groups (n = 6 rats per group): control (CO), sham-operated (SH), EO (E); ciprofloxacin (C), EO-ciprofloxacin (EC), KRG (G), EO-KRG (EG), ciprofloxacin-KRG (CG) and EO-ciprofloxacin-KRG (ECG). We administered ciprofloxacin and KRG 48 hr after the Escherichia coli (E. coli) injection for 10 days. Bilateral orchiectomy was performed after one sperm cycle (14 days) following the last treatment with ciprofloxacin and KRG. Total and progressive motility of E, C and EC groups decreased. However, motility is improved in CG and ECG in comparison with these groups. The E group induced negative changes in the architecture of testes tissue and dramatic increase in apoptosis indices. Interestingly, co-administration of ciprofloxacin and KRG has dramatically improved Miller's and Johnsen's scores and decreased the apoptosis indices of animals in the ECG group. Combined treatment of ciprofloxacin and KRG may improve the quality of spermatozoa and attenuated apoptosis indices in the ECG group.
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Effect of sublethal doses of physical and chemical stressors (heat shock for 2 h at 45 degrees C and addition of C12-alkylhydroxybenzene, a microbial alarmone) on development of resistance to the subsequent lethal antibiotic attack and the role of the time interval between these treatments were studied on a submerged batch culture of Escherichia coli 12. The interval sufficient for the development of stress response provides for development of temporary adaptive resistance to the antibiotic attack, resulting in increased number of surviving persister cells. The interval below the time required for the stress response potentiates cell death and results in a decreased number of persisters. Heterogeneity of the fractions (10(-4) to 10(-2)% of the intial CFU number) surviving lethal doses of an antibiotic (a mpicillin or ciprofloxacin) was found. Apart from a low number of antibiotic-resistant cells (up to 0.005% of surviving cells), the fractions contained antibiotic-tolerant forms, such as temporarily resistant metabolically adapted cells, long-term persisters, and the cells of slowly growing SCV variants with small colonies (d ≤ 1 mm). Persisters are hypothesized to act as precursors for cystlike dormant cells (CLC), in which the cell differentiation stage is completed and the processes of cell ametabolism (transition to the anabiotic state) are still incomplete.
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Foreign travel was the major risk factor for ciprofloxacin-resistant infection [adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 24.0, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 12.6-45.9]. Among travellers, case patients were five times more likely to drink still bottled water (adjOR 4.7, 95% CI 1.0-21.7), whilst among non-travellers, case patients were three times more likely to drink sparkling bottled water (adjOR 3.3, 95% CI 1.5-7.4). There was no increased risk associated with eating poultry or prior quinolone use.
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Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, whereas staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing and Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes were assessed by polymerase chain reaction. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing analyses were carried out to determine the MRSA lineages.
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An evaluation of existing analytical methods used to measure contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) was performed through an interlaboratory comparison involving 25 research and commercial laboratories. In total, 52 methods were used in the single-blind study to determine method accuracy and comparability for 22 target compounds, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and steroid hormones, all at ng/L levels in surface and drinking water. Method biases ranged from <10% to well over 100% in both matrixes, suggesting that while some methods are accurate, others can be considerably inaccurate. In addition, the number and degree of outliers identified suggest a high degree of variability may be present between methods currently in use. Three compounds, ciprofloxacin, 4-nonylphenol (NP), and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), were especially difficult to measure accurately. While most compounds had overall false positive rates of ≤5%, bisphenol A, caffeine, NP, OP, and triclosan had false positive rates >15%. In addition, some methods reported false positives for 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethynylestradiol in unspiked drinking water and deionized water, respectively, at levels higher than published predicted no-effect concentrations for these compounds in the environment. False negative rates were also generally <5%; however, rates were higher for the steroid hormones and some of the more challenging compounds, such as ciprofloxacin. The elevated false positive/negative rates of some analytes emphasize the susceptibility of many current methods to blank contamination, misinterpretation of background interferences, and/or inappropriate setting of detection/quantification levels for analysis at low ng/L levels. The results of both comparisons were collectively assessed to identify parameters that resulted in the best overall method performance. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with the calibration technique of isotope dilution were able to accurately quantify most compounds with an average bias of <10% for both matrixes. These findings suggest that this method of analysis is suitable at environmentally relevant levels for most of the compounds studied. This work underscores the need for robust, standardized analytical methods for CECs to improve data quality, increase comparability between studies, and help reduce false positive and false negative rates.