cefpodoxime proxetil brand names
Cefpodoxime is a semi-synthetic, third generation cephalosporin. The drug is available for use as a prodrug-Cefpodoxime proxetil, which is absorbed readily from the gut. It reaches adequate levels exceeding the MIC in most of the body fluids. It is excreted by kidneys, unchanged. Dose needs adjustment in compromised renal function. The drug is active against common gram-positive cocci like staphylococci including penicillinase producing strains, streptococci and gram negative bacteria like Hemophilus, E. coli, Klebsiella, Moraxella, Meningococci, Gonococci etc. The drug is useful in common upper and lower respiratory tract infections, sinusitis, and otitis media. The drug is also used in skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infection and respiratory tract infection. Cefpodoxime is being used as a step down from parenteral cephalosporin. The recommended dose is 8-10 mg/kg/d in a single or two doses. Different schedules have been given for different infections. The drug is safe, effective as a short course (5 vs. 10 days). With a low incidence of side effects, and twice a day dosing, it proves to be a useful drug.
The rising rate of CA-MRSA as a cause for many pediatric infections is a major concern. It is very important to obtain cultures from patients with nonresponsive or persistent otorrhea with AOM to look for MRSA and determine the sensitivity of the pathogen to antibacterial therapy. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is a good choice for initial, empirical therapy when combined with a topical agent for AOM with otorrhea if CA-MRSA is suspected. Further studies are needed to determine whether there is a link between the overuse of topical fluoroquinolones in pediatric patients and the recent rising rate of CA-MRSA.
cefpodoxime dosage in paediatrics
CS-834 is a prodrug of the carbapenem R-95867, developed by Sankyo Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan. To investigate the possibility that CS-834 may be the first carbapenem usable in an oral dosage form, its in vitro antibacterial activity (as R-95867) and in vivo antibacterial activity were compared with those of cefpodoxime proxetil, cefditoren pivoxil, cefdinir, ofloxacin, imipenem, and amoxicillin. R-95867 had high levels of activity against methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and streptococci, including penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Moraxella catarrhalis, the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (with the exception of Serratia marcescens), Haemophilus influenzae, and Bordetella pertussis; for all these strains, the MICs at which 90% of tested strains are inhibited (MIC90s) were 1.0 microg/ml or less. Against methicillin-resistant staphylococci, enterococci, Serratia marcescens, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, R-95867 showed activity comparable to or slightly less than that of imipenem, with MIC90s ranging from 2 to >128 microg/ml. The in vivo efficacy of oral CS-834 against experimental mouse septicemia caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was better than that of comparative drugs. In murine respiratory infection models, the efficacy of CS-834 reflected not only its potent in vitro activity but also the high levels present in the lungs.
cefpodoxime canine dose
Linezolid is the first of a new class of antibacterial drugs, the oxazolidinones. It has inhibitory activity against a broad range of gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus (GISA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. The drug also shows activity against certain anaerobes, including Clostridium perfringens, C. difficile, Peptostreptococcus spp. and Bacteroidesfragilis. In controlled phase III studies, linezolid was as effective as vancomycin in the treatment of patients with infections caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococci and also demonstrated efficacy against infections caused by VRE. Further phase III studies have demonstrated that linezolid is an effective treatment for patients with nosocomial pneumonia, for hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia, and for patients with complicated skin or soft tissue infections (SSTIs). In these studies, linezolid was as effective as established treatments, including third-generation cephalosporins in patients with pneumonia, and oxacillin in patients with complicated SSTIs. Oral linezolid 400 or 600mg twice daily was as effective as clarithromycin 250mg twice daily or cefpodoxime proxetil 200mg twice daily in the treatment of patients with uncomplicated SSTIs or community-acquired pneumonia. Linezolid is a generally well tolerated drug. The most frequently reported adverse events in linezolid recipients were diarrhoea, headache, nausea and vomiting. Thrombocytopenia was also documented in a small proportion (about 2%) of patients treated with the drug.
cefpodoxime 8 mg
Cefpodoxime proxetil is an oral third generation cephalosporin with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The drug has in vitro activity against many common Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens associated with common paediatric infections, making the drug a useful option for empirical therapy. In randomised controlled trials conducted in children with acute otitis media, oral cefpodoxime proxetil 8 to 10 mg/kg/day (usually administered in 2 divided doses) for 5 to 10 days was at least as effective as standard regimens of amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid, cefixime, cefuroxime axetil or cefaclor as assessed by either clinical or bacteriological criteria. Cefpodoxime 8 to 10 mg/kg/day (administered in 2 divided doses) for 5 to 10 days was at least as effective as standard 10-day regimens of penicillin V in the treatment of children with pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis. Significant differences in favour of cefpodoxime proxetil were demonstrated in terms of clinical (1 study) and bacteriological (2 studies) criteria. The clinical efficacy of 5 days of treatment with cefpodoxime proxetil is similar to that of 10 days of treatment with penicillin V. In children with lower respiratory tract infections (primarily pneumonia), clinical and bacteriological efficacy rates achieved with cefpodoxime proxetil treatment were similar to those produced by cefuroxime axetil or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in randomised controlled trials. Cefpodoxime proxetil also demonstrated clinical efficacy in paediatric patients with skin and soft tissue infections. In randomised studies that included both adults and children with a variety of infections (e.g. abscess, atheroma, furuncle and carbuncle, infected wounds, cellulitis), cefpodoxime proxetil showed efficacy similar to that of cefuroxime axetil or cefaclor. Cefpodoxime proxetil is well tolerated by paediatric patients, with adverse events (primarily gastrointestinal tract disturbances and skin rashes) that are consistent with those reported for other oral cephalosporins.
cefpodoxime drug information
Pharmacokinetics of cefpodoxime in plasma (total concentration) and subcutaneous fluid (free concentration using microdialysis) was investigated in dogs following single oral administration of prodrug cefpodoxime proxetil (equivalent to 5 and 10 mg/kg of cefpodoxime). In a cross over study design, six dogs per dose were utilized after a 1 week washout period. Plasma, microdialysate, and urine samples were collected upto 24 h and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. The average maximum concentration (C(max) ) of cefpodoxime in plasma was 13.66 (±6.30) and 27.14 (±4.56) μg/mL with elimination half-life (t(1/2) ) of 3.01 (±0.49) and 4.72 (±1.46) h following 5 and 10 mg/kg dose, respectively. The respective average area under the curve (AUC(0-∞) ) was 82.94 (±30.17) and 107.71 (±30.79) μg·h/mL. Cefpodoxime was readily distributed to skin and average free C(max) in subcutaneous fluid was 1.70 (±0.55) and 3.06 (±0.93) μg/mL at the two doses. Urinary excretion (unchanged cefpodoxime) was the major elimination route. Comparison of subcutaneous fluid concentrations using pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic indices of fT(>MIC) indicated that at 10 mg/kg dose; cefpodoxime would yield good therapeutic outcome in skin infections for bacteria with MIC(50) upto 0.5 μg/mL while higher doses (or more frequent dosing) may be needed for bacteria with higher MICs. High urine concentrations suggested cefpodoxime use for urinary infections in dogs.
cefpodoxime 50 mg suspension
Multiple dose pharmacokinetics of a new third-generation cephalosporin, cefpodoxime, were evaluated in adults (15, 18-60 years) and elderly adults (10, greater than or equal to 70 years), all out-patients suffering from acute lower respiratory tract infection. A dose of 200 mg cefpodoxime proxetil (expressed in mg cefpodoxime) was administered 12-hourly for seven to ten days and timed blood samples were evaluated on days 0, 3, 5, 6/7 and on the last day of treatment. Results showed that the pharmacokinetics in adult and elderly patients were comparable with those of healthy volunteers and with each other, with the exception of one elderly patient with severe renal impairment. Dosage adjustment of cefpodoxime proxetil does not therefore appear to be necessary in the elderly unless there is evidence of severe renal insufficiency.
Concurrently with administering a newly developed cephem derivative antibiotic (CEP), cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDX-PR, CS-807) dry syrup, to children with skin and soft tissue infections, activities of 7 drugs against a group of microorganisms were tested. The drugs tested included 4 drugs of the cephem group, R-3746, a Na-salt form of CPDX, cefaclor (CCL), cephalexin (CEX) and cefadroxil (CDX), and 3 drugs of the penicillin group, ampicillin (ABPC), methicillin (DMPPC) and cloxacillin (MCIPC). The bacterial strains tested were 71 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes, all isolated from the above cases of pediatric infections. Inoculum sizes used in these tests were 10(6) and 10(8) cfu/ml. Ages of children in those cases to which the drug was administered ranged from 2 months to 15 years. A total of 66 cases were treated, including 60 cases of impetigo, 5 cases of subcutaneous abscess and 1 case of phlegmon. The drug was administered for an average of 6 days with a daily average dose level of 9.4 mg/kg divided into 3 doses except 1 case where a twice daily dose regimen was used. Clinical and bacteriological effects were examined, and the occurrence of adverse reactions and abnormal laboratory test results were recorded. The results of these tests are summarized below. 1. The activity test for R-3746 (Na-salt of CPDX) against 71 strains of S. aureus performed at an inoculum level of 10(8) cfu/ml showed 2 peaks of MIC values, one in a range of 1.56 to 6.25 micrograms/ml and the other higher than 100 micrograms/ml. The most prevalent MIC value was 3.13 micrograms/ml with MIC against 51 strains or 71.8% of the strains tested showing this value, and MIC values of 25 micrograms/ml or higher were obtained for 13 strains or 18.3% of the strains tested. The MIC80 was 6.25 micrograms/ml. Thus, R-3746 showed an antibacterial activity slightly weaker than MCIPC and DMPPC but similar to CCL, CEX and CDX. MIC values obtained at an inoculum level of 10(6) cfu/ml also had 2 peaks, one in a range of 1.56 to 3.13 micrograms/ml and the other higher than 25 micrograms/ml. Strains against which R-3746 had the MIC value of 3.13 micrograms/ml were the most numerous with 47 strains or 66.2%, and strains against which the MIC value of higher than 25 micrograms/ml was obtained were next with 13 strains or 18.3%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
cefpodoxime dosage for dogs
Cefpodoxime proxetil is a new orally administered cephalosporin which has a favorable spectrum of activity against respiratory pathogens. Concentrations of cefpodoxime in serum and bronchial mucosal biopsy were measured in 13 patients without active respiratory tract infection undergoing fibreoptic bronchoscopy. Samples were taken between 1 and 6 h after a single oral dose of cefpodoxime proxetil equivalent to 200 mg of cefpodoxime base. In twelve patients who completed the study, mean serum concentrations were 1.7 mg/L (S.E.M. 0.4) and in ten patients mean bronchial biopsy concentrations were 0.9 mg/L (S.E.M. 0.2). The mean penetration was 54% (S.E.M. 6.1). Cefpodoxime was undetectable in biopsies from two patients. The majority of serum and biopsy concentrations were in excess of the MIC90S for Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Cefpodoxime proxetil may be worthy of further study in clinical trials in patients with respiratory infections.
cefpodoxime dog medication
The effects of food intake and age on intestinal absorption of AS-924, a novel prodrug-type cephem antibiotic, were examined in 16 healthy adult volunteers (eight young volunteers and eight elderly volunteers) by the cross-over method, using cefpodoxime proxetil (CPOD-PR) as the control drug. The gastrointestinal absorption of AS-924 and CPOD-PR was increased slightly by food intake and the extent of increase was slightly greater after administration of CPOD-PR. The absorption of AS-924 was not affected by age, whereas intestinal absorption of CPOD-PR increased with age. In conclusion, these results confirmed that AS-924 has the unique characteristics as a novel prodrug and that its absorption is less likely to be affected by food intake and age.
cefpodoxime generic name
To evaluate the economic benefit associated with the early conversion of therapy from intravenous ceftiaxone to the comparable oral third-generation cephalosporin, cefpodoxime proxetil.