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To report a case of renal toxicity associated with administration of indinavir sulfate in a pediatric hemophiliac with HIV infection.
A multicentre open-label, randomised trial was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of cefpodoxime proxetil bd and cefaclor tds in the treatment of acute otitis media in children. A total of 167 children aged from 1 month to 11 years were enrolled in five centres: 78 treated with cefpodoxime and 83 treated with cefaclor, were evaluated in the ITT analysis. After tympanocentesis and culture of middle ear fluid, a pathogen was isolated from 85 (53%) of the 161 evaluable patients for the ITT analysis. The organisms isolated were as follows: Streptococcus pneumoniae: (n = 33, 37.5%); Haemophilus influenzae: (n = 22, 25%); Staphylococcus aureus: (n = 15, 17.1%); Streptococcus pyogenes: (n = 8, 9.1%); Moraxella catarrhalis: (n = 2, 2.3%); others (n = 6, 6.8%). Success (defined as a satisfactory clinical outcome, either cure or improvement) was achieved at the end of treatment, in 93.6% of ther patients in the cefpodoxime group and 91.6% of the patients in the cefaclor group (P> 0.05). Clinical recurrence was identified at the follow-up visit (30 days after inclusion), in 6.4% of the cefpodoxime-treated patients and 7.2% of the cefaclor-treated patients (P> 0.05). The drugs were well tolerated by 78/79 (99%) of patients in the cefpodoxime-treated group and 80/85 (94%) in the cefaclor-treated group. The incidence of adverse effects was higher in the cefaclor group than in the cefpodoxime group, but this was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). IN conclusion, cefpodaxime proxetil administered bd is as effective as cefaclor administered tds in the treatment of acute otitis media in children. The less frequent dosing schedule of cefpodoxime (bd) compared with cefaclor (tds) appears to be more convenient for the treatment of the infections in children.
A sensitive and selective electrochemical method for Cefpodoxime Proxetil (CP) determination has been developed by incorporating gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) onto the poly-1,5-diaminonapthalene layer (p-DAN) coated pyrolytic graphite. The modified sensor was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The sensor exhibited an effective catalytic response towards oxidation of CP with excellent reproducibility and stability. The peak current of CP was found to be linear in the range of 0.1-12 μM and detection limit and sensitivity of 39 nM (S/N=3) and 4.621 μA μM(-1), respectively, were observed. The method was successfully applied for the determination of CP in pharmaceutical formulations and human urine samples. The common metabolites present in human urine such as uric acid, ascorbic acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine did not interfere in the determination. A comparison of the results obtained by using developed method with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated a good agreement. The method is simple, sensitive, rapid and precise and is useful for the routine determination of CP in pharmaceutical dosages and biological samples.
The present study deals with the development of mucoadhesive controlled release tablets of Cefpodoxime Proxetil to increase the gastric residence time and thus prolong drug release, reduce dosing frequency and improve oral bioavailability. Tablets were prepared using sodium alginate and karaya gum, a natural polymer, with a synthetic polymer hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (K100LV) and Karaya gum with HPMC K100LV in various ratios to optimize the drug release profile using D-Optimal technique. Pre- and post-compression parameters of tablets prepared with various formulations (S1-S9, C1-C9) were evaluated. The FTIR and DSC studies revealed that no physiochemical interaction between excipients and drug. The formulation S7 showed prolonged drug release, and the mechanism of drug release from the optimized formulation was confirmed using the Korsmeyer-Peppas model to be non-Fickian release transport and n value was found 0.605 indicating both diffusion and erosion mechanism from these natural gums. The optimized formulation showed mucoadhesive strength >35 g. An in vivo study was performed on rabbits using an X-ray imaging technique. The radiological evidence suggests that the tablets adheres (more than 10 hours) to a rabbit's stomach. No significant changes were found in the physical appearance, drug content, mucoadhesive study and in vitro dissolution pattern after storage at 40 °C/75% relative humidity for 3 months.
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A patient with a recent history of cefpodoxime proxetil treatment presented with elevated serum creatinine, oliguria, nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. Evidence of renal failure, abnormal urinalysis, and renal biopsy with inflammatory infiltrate in the interstitium confirmed a diagnosis of AIN. The patient subsequently developed IHA, which was confirmed by peripheral blood smear results and positive Coombs' test. The patient recovered after dialysis therapy and 2 days of intravenous methylprednisolone (500mg/day) followed by oral prednisolone (60 mg/day), which was rapidly tapered and stopped within 3 weeks.
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The efficacy of CS-834, a novel oral carbapenem, was assessed by using a murine model of pneumonia caused by penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and was compared with those of oral cephems, i.e., cefteram pivoxil, cefpodoxime proxetil, cefdinir, and cefditoren pivoxil. Intranasal inoculation of 10(6) CFU of penicillin-susceptible or penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae in the exponential growth phase induced pneumonia and bacteremia in ddY mice within 48 h. For the treatment of infections caused by the penicillin-susceptible strain the antibiotics were administered orally at 0.4, 2, and 10 mg/kg of body weight twice daily for 2 days beginning at 24 h after bacterial inoculation, and for the treatment of infections caused by a penicillin-resistant strain the antibiotics were administered at 2, 10, and 50 mg/kg twice daily for 2 days beginning at 24 h after bacterial inoculation. Among the antibiotics tested, CS-834 exhibited the most potent efficacy against both types of strains. Against infections caused by penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae, CS-834 at all doses significantly reduced the numbers of viable cells in both the lungs and blood. Cefpodoxime proxetil at all doses and cefteram pivoxil and cefditoren pivoxil at doses of 2 and 10 mg/kg showed comparable efficacies. Against infections caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, CS-834 at doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg showed the most potent efficacy among the antibiotics tested, resulting in the maximum decrease in the numbers of viable cells in the lungs. Comparable efficacies were observed with cefteram pivoxil and cefpodoxime proxetil at doses of 50 mg/kg each. The concentration of CS-834 in the lungs and blood was higher than that of cefdinir and was lower than those of the other antibiotics tested, suggesting that the potent therapeutic efficacy of CS-834 reflects its strong activity against S. pneumoniae.
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The single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of cefpodoxime were assessed in plasma and skin blister fluid (SBF) after oral dosing of 200 mg (n = 8) and 400 mg (n = 8) of cefpodoxime proxetil (doses are expressed as cefpodoxime equivalents) in healthy subjects in an open-label, parallel-design study. Skin blisters were formed by air suction on the midvolar forearm by a previously validated method. After single-dose administration, serial plasma and SBF samples were collected over 24 h for measurement of cefpodoxime by microbiological assays. After a 1-week washout, subjects received the same doses of antibiotic every 12 h for 5 days, with plasma and SBF sampling on day 5. After 200 mg of cefpodoxime proxetil, average peak concentrations (Cmax) in plasma and SBF were 2.18 +/- 0.52 and 1.55 +/- 0.59 micrograms/ml, respectively, after a single dose and 2.33 +/- 0.74 and 1.56 +/- 0.55 micrograms/ml, respectively, at steady state. After 400 mg of cefpodoxime proxetil, Cmax in plasma and SBF averaged 4.16 +/- 1.04 and 2.94 +/- 0.71 micrograms/ml, respectively, following a single dose and 4.10 +/- 0.95 and 2.84 +/- 0.88 micrograms/ml, respectively, at steady state. Cmax occurred 1.1 to 1.6 h later in SBF than in plasma. There was no accumulation of cefpodoxime in plasma or SBF when dosing was done every 12 h. Cefpodoxime blister fluid penetration was estimated to be 67 to 101%, consistent with the relatively low serum protein binding of the drug. Cefpodoxime levels exceeding the MIC for 90% of many skin pathogens, such as Streptococcus species (<1 microgram/ml) or Staphylococcus species (2 to 4 micrograms/ml), were achieved in plasma and SBF following the 200- and/or 400-mg dosing regimens.
Two controlled United States trials compared the safety and efficacy of cefpodoxime proxetil (100mg twice daily) with either cefaclor (250mg 3 times daily) or amoxicillin (250mg 3 times daily) in patients with uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Treatment duration was 7 days. 307 of 762 patients treated with cefpodoxime proxetil, 99 of 190 treated with cefaclor, and 57 of 185 treated with amoxicillin were evaluable for efficacy. 311, 99 and 59 pathogens were isolated from cefpodoxime proxetil, cefaclor and amoxicillin patients, respectively, the most common pathogens being Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Bacteriological cure rates were 80% (247/307), 82% (81/99) and 70% (40/57) for cefpodoxime proxetil, cefaclor and amoxicillin, respectively. Respective clinical cure rates were 79% (242/307), 79% (78/99) and 72% (41/57). Cefpodoxime proxetil was well tolerated, and there was no significant difference between the groups in the overall incidence of adverse experiences. Thus, cefpodoxime proxetil is efficacious and safe in the treatment of patients with uncomplicated urinary tract infections and compares favourably with cefaclor and amoxicillin.
In Japan, oral antimicrobial agents are prophylactically used with oxytocics after normal delivery to prevent puerperal infections. The present study was designed to investigate bacterial floras in the endometrial cavity immediately after normal delivery and the effect of prophylactic use of anti-microbial agents on those floras. Sixty-six puerperae who underwent uneventful courses of pregnancy and delivery were subjected for this study. Intrauterine contents were collected on the first day and the fifth day of the puerperium and submitted to microbiological examinations. Cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDX-PR) was orally given to the puerperae for prophylaxis for 5 days after the initial sampling. On the puerperal first day, a total of 98 strains (71 strains of aerobic bacteria, 27 strains of anaerobic bacteria) was detected in the uteri of the 66 subjects. The incidences of aerobic Gram-positive cocci, aerobic Gram-negative bacilli and anaerobic bacteria were 59.2%, 12.2%, 27.6% of the 98 strains, respectively. On the puerperal fifth day, a total of 82 strains (51 strains of aerobic bacteria and 31 strains of anaerobic bacteria) were detected in the uteri of the 66 subjects. The incidences of aerobic Gram-positive cocci, aerobic Gram-negative bacilli and anaerobic bacteria were 52.5%, 8.6% and 37.7% of 82 strains, respectively.
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This multicentre, randomized study compared the efficacy and tolerance of cefpodoxime proxetil and ceftriaxone in vulnerable patients with bronchopneumonia. Patients received cefpodoxime proxetil 200 mg bd orally or ceftriaxone 1 g daily im for a ten-day period. They were evaluated at days 10 and 30. Ninety-six patients were evaluated for tolerance, 85 for clinical efficacy and 65 for bacteriological efficacy. At entry all patients had radiographic evidence of pneumonia and 74% of bacteriological samples were positive. The percentage of overall success (cured or improved) was 97.7% (43/44) in the cefpodoxime proxetil group and 95.1% (39/41) in the ceftriaxone group. The bacteriological efficacy was 94.3% in the cefpodoxime proxetil group and 97.4% in the ceftriaxone group. Clinical tolerance was satisfactory in both groups. In this study, the clinical and bacteriological results obtained with cefpodoxime proxetil were comparable with those obtained with ceftriaxone in the treatment of community-acquired bronchopneumonia in patients with additional risk factors.
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In order to objectively evaluate the effectiveness, safety and usefulness of the new oral cephem cefpodoxime proxetil (CS-807, CPDX-PR) for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections, a double-blind comparative study was undertaken using cefaclor (CCL) as the control drug. CPDX-PR and CCL were administered for 7 days at daily doses of 400 mg (divided into 2 portions) and 750 mg (divided into 3 portions), respectively. A total of 243 patients (118 in the CPDX-PR group and 125 in the CCL group) was treated in this study. The effectiveness, safety and usefulness were evaluated in 222 (106 in the CPDX-PR group and 116 in the CCL group), 234 (113 in the CPDX-PR group and 121 in the CCL group) and in 223 patients (107 in the CPDX-PR group and 116 in the CCL group), respectively. There were no differences in patients' backgrounds between the 2 groups, except for the presence or the absence of surgical treatments. The results we obtained are summarized below: 1. In the evaluation of clinical efficacy by the subcommittee, excellent, good, fair and poor efficacy were observed in 36, 43, 17 and 10 patients in the CPDX-PR group, respectively; the efficacy rate was, therefore, calculated to be 74.5%. As for the CCL group, respective results were observed in 50, 39, 17 and 10 patients, indicating an efficacy rate of 76.7%. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups. Improvement rates judged by physicians in charge were 80.2% in the CPDX-PR group and 88.8% in the CCL group. Moreover, no significant difference in diseases or severity were found between the 2 groups. 2. As for the bacteriological efficacy, the 2 groups showed high elimination rates, as 90.1% and 91.6% of the disease causing bacteria were eliminated in the CPDX-PR group and in the CCL group, respectively. Elimination rates in single infections with Staphylococcus aureus were determined to be 85.7% in the CPDX-PR group and 85.0% in the CCL group. 3. Although 6 patients in the CPDX-PR group and 2 patients in the CCL group developed side effects, which were mainly gastrointestinal symptoms, there was no significant difference in the incidence of side effects between the 2 groups. Abnormal laboratory values were found in 5 patients in the CPDX-PR group and 1 patient in the CCL group. 4. There was no significant difference in the usefulness between the 2 groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)