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We found no trials comparing the use of antibiotics with no antibiotic for treating MRSA-colonised non-surgical wounds and therefore can draw no conclusions for this population. In the trials that compared different antibiotics for treating MRSA-infected non surgical wounds, there was no evidence that any one antibiotic was better than the others. Further well-designed RCTs are necessary.
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In this single-blind study, 579 patients with chronic bronchitis were randomly assigned to receive 400 mg of loracarbef twice daily or 500/125 mg of amoxicillin/clavulanate thrice daily for seven days. Treatment efficacy was evaluated in 129 of the loracarbef-treated patients and 120 amoxicillin/clavulanate-treated patients in whom pretreatment positive cultures of pathogens susceptible to both antibiotics were isolated. Three organisms predominated in either pure or mixed cultures in 57.0% of the evaluable patients: Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis; H influenzae was isolated in 25.0% of the patients with single pathogens. Among the evaluable patients, favorable clinical responses (cure or improvement) were noted in 93.8% of the loracarbef-treated patients and in 95.0% of the amoxicillin/clavulanate-treated patients. A favorable bacteriologic response (pathogen eliminated or presumed eliminated) was found in 82.2% of loracarbef-treated patients and 90.0% of amoxicillin/clavulanate-treated patients. Six patients in the loracarbef group and 14 in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group discontinued treatment because of adverse events. The events were judged to be drug related in four loracarbef-treated patients and in 11 amoxicillin/clavulanate-treated patients. The incidence of diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms was significantly more frequent in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group (13.5% and 5.6%) than in the loracarbef group (4.5% and 1.7%), while the incidence of severe headaches was significantly more frequent in the loracarbef than the amoxicillin/clavulanate group (7.2% vs 3.1%). It is concluded that loracarbef and amoxicillin/clavulanate are safe and effective in the treatment of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.
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The duration of therapy represents a fundamental aspect in the compliance to the therapy of child pathologies, such as pharyngotonsillitis, treated with oral therapy. Although penicillin and amoxicillin are the first choice antibiotics in the case of a child suffering from pharyngotonsillitis with the proven presence of Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus (GAS), the number of orally administered doses and 10 days of therapy, considerably lower the compliance.
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A systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts was conducted from the earliest available date through September 2008. We used the following MeSH and key words: amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, Augmentin, azithromycin, ceftriaxone, clarithromycin, macrolides, AND media, otitis media, and effusion. Included studies were randomized, blinded, and controlled trials evaluating guideline-recommended antibiotics (amoxicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanate) compared to macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin or clarithromycin) in AOM in children. The primary outcome assessed was clinical failure measured between days 10 and 16 after starting antibiotic therapy. Results are reported as relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals and were calculated using a random-effects model.
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beta-Lactam antibiotics share a common structure and mechanism of action, although they differ in their spectrum of antimicrobial activity and utility in treating different infections. The current classes include the penicillins, the penicillinase-resistant penicillins, the extended- spectrum penicillins, the cephalosporins, the carbapenems, and the monobactams. This article discusses some of the newest beta-lactams available for use in the United States: ertapenem, cefditoren, and cefepime. A new formulation of amoxicillin-clavulanate, which contains higher doses of amoxicillin, is also discussed.
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Nosocomial IE and AIE have drawn much attention in the last decade because of development of new complex invasive treatments and expansion of narcomania.
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Intention to treat analysis showed no significant differences between oral (n=244) and parenteral (n=258) treatment, both in the primary outcome (scarring scintigraphy at 12 months 27/197 (13.7%) v 36/203 (17.7%), difference in risk -4%, 95% confidence interval -11.1% to 3.1%) and secondary outcomes (time to defervescence 36.9 hours (SD 19.7) v 34.3 hours (SD 20), mean difference 2.6 (-0.9 to 6.0); white cell count 9.8x10(9)/l (SD 3.5) v 9.5x10(9)/l (SD 3.1), mean difference 0.3 (-0.3 to 0.9); percentage with sterile urine 185/186 v 203/204, risk difference -0.05% (-1.5% to 1.4%)). Similar results were found in the subgroup of 278 children with confirmed acute pyelonephritis on scintigraphy at study entry.
One hundred and sixteen women about to undergo either endometrial laser ablation (ELA) or transcervical resection of the endometrium (TCRE).