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The mutation of the ytfG gene may influence fructose and mannose metabolic processes of K. pneumoniae during space flight, which may be beneficial to the field of space microbiology, providing potential therapeutic strategies to combat or prevent infection in astronauts.
Randomised or quasi randomised trials comparing routinely administered cotrimoxazole versus placebo or no treatment in children (age less than 13 years) with HIV infection, or children less than 18 months with HIV infected mothers.
The results of the present study do not support the addition of trimethoprim-sulphadimidine to therapeutic protocols for equine glandular ulceration. Several limitations were present in the study and the use of antimicrobials as an adjunctive treatment warrants further investigation. However, given the potential deleterious consequences associated with the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials, the inclusion of antimicrobials in treatment regimes for EGUS is not justified until their efficacy is further validated.
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Samples from 1295 patients with diabetic foot infection were evaluated; 4332 samples were collected with an average of 3.3 samples per patient. Fifty-seven percent of patients had a 2B ulcer and 23% had a 3B ulcer according to Texas University Classification. In 64.2% of samples collected at first visit an etiologic agent was identified. About 40% of the positive samples were polymicrobial. Gram positive bacteria were more frequently isolated (52.6%), Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated single agent (29.9%) and MRSA was 22% of S. aureus. Enterococcus spp., mainly Enterococcus faecalis, were 9.9%, all vancomycin susceptible except 2 isolates. Streptococci were 4.6%, more than 60% Streptococcus agalactiae. Gram negative rods were 40.6%, with enterobacteria 23.5% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 10.3%. Anaerobes were only 0.3%, probably due to culture methods applied in our laboratory. Cotrimoxazole, rifampin and doxycycline were still active against S. aureus. ESBL producers, among enterobacteria, were 10%, mainly Escherichia coli and Proteus spp. Only colistin had a rate of susceptibility against P. aeruginosa above 90%. Levofloxacin had the best clinical activity with respect to the other quinolones, but when it failed, selected more resistant strains with respect to moxifloxacin among S. aureus and with respect to ciprofloxacin among P. aeruginosa.
We describe the occurrence of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis in two cases of Henoch Schonlein purpura. We discuss the potential diagnostic difficulties and suggest that Henoch Schonlein purpura may predispose to the development of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis.
Treatment of childhood pneumonia in developing countries requires knowledge of susceptibility patterns for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Between October 1991 and April 1993, a surveillance survey of antimicrobial resistance was performed at two fever hospitals in Egypt; nasopharyngeal swab and blood specimens obtained from 1,635 children with pneumonia were cultured for these organisms. Susceptibility testing of these organisms was performed. At least one of these organisms was isolated from nasopharyngeal swab specimens from 73% of the children; 3.7% of blood cultures were positive. For S. pneumoniae strains, 70.9% of nasopharyngeal isolates were calculated to be susceptible to penicillin vs. 77.6% of blood isolates; the percentages of isolates susceptible to co-trimoxazole were 73.0% and 75.0%, respectively. For H. influenzae strains, 93.0% of nasopharyngeal isolates were calculated to be susceptible to ampicillin vs. 100% of blood isolates; the percentages of isolates susceptible to co-trimoxazole were 84.9% and 100%, respectively. Although most S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae strains associated with childhood pneumonia in Cairo were susceptible to penicillins and co-trimoxazole, antimicrobial resistance did not occur.
To determine whether treatment with an antibiotic (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) reduced the inflammatory response in a murine form of Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced rhinosinusitis.
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Head lice infestations continue to be seen frequently in many communities. Some of these children require multiple treatments before eradication. What are the current treatment recommendations for head lice?
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HIV-uninfected (group A), HIV-infected but not requiring SXT (group B), and HIV-infected and eligible for SXT (group C) adults were recruited into a prospective observational cohort study in Moshi, Tanzania. Stool was examined for Escherichia coli nonsusceptible to SXT at baseline and at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 24. General estimating equation models were used to assess differences in susceptibility over time and cross-resistance to other antimicrobials.
Antibiotic resistance continues to rise among hospital-acquired gram-negative pathogens. Optimal management of these infections requires knowledge of local epidemiology and practices to control their spread.