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The serum potassium concentration in the treatment group (mean +/- SD) was 3.89 +/- 0.46 mmol/L (95% CI, 3.79 to 3.99 mmol/L), and it increased by 1.21 mmol/L (CI, 1.09 to 1.32 mmol/L) 4.6 +/- 2.2 days after trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole therapy was initiated. Blood urea nitrogen levels increased from 7.92 +/- 5.7 mmol/L (CI, 6.67 to 9.16 mmol/L) to 9.2 +/- 5.8 mmol/L (CI, 7.9 to 10.5 mmol/L), and serum creatinine levels increased from 102.5 +/- 49.5 mumol/L (CI, 91.4 to 113.6 mumol/L) to 126.1 +/- 70.7 mumol/L (CI, 110.3 to 141.9 mumol/L). Patients with a serum creatinine level of 106 mumol/L (1.2 mg/dL) or more developed a higher peak potassium concentration (5.37 +/- 0.59 mmol/L [CI, 5.15 to 5.59 mmol/L]) than patients with a serum creatinine level of less than 106 mumol/L (4.95 +/- 0.48 mmol/L [CI, 4.80 to 5.08 mmol/L]). Patients with diabetes had a slightly higher peak potassium concentration (5.14 +/- 0.45 mmol/L [CI, 4.93 to 5.39 mmol/L]) than did patients without diabetes (5.08 +/- 0.59 mmol/L [CI, 4.93 to 5.23 mmol/L]), but the difference was not statistically significant. The serum potassium concentration in the control group was 4.33 +/- 0.45 mmol/L (CI, 4.15 to 4.51 mmol/L), and it decreased nonsignificantly over 5 days of therapy.
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The in vitro activity of selected penicillins, extended spectrum cephalosporins, vancomycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, tetracycline, rifampin, and trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (alone and in combination) was determined by microtiter technique for 20 isolates of Listeria monocytogenes. The activity of selected combinations of antimicrobics was determined by the microtiter checkboard technique. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1:20 ratio) was the most active agent in inhibitory tests and also showed bactericidal activity. The combinations of gentamicin with either ampicillin or vancomycin and that of erythromycin with tetracycline showed bactericidal effect in synergy studies. Combining ampicillin with an extended spectrum cephalosporin showed no antagonism, whereas, combining rifampin with trimethoprim or with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole led only to indifference or antagonism. These observations may have importance in selection of therapy in animal models or in selected clinical situations.
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Dr. Bernard Bihari, an AIDS specialist practicing in New York City, and other members of the Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS (CPCRA), have determined that some of the Public Health Services's recommendations for preventing opportunistic infections do not match the standards of care that the CPCRA developed nearly five years ago. The basic treatments provided by Bihari include using 1) TMP-SMZ and fluconazole to prevent, respectively, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and cryptococcal meningitis in patients with CD4 counts below 200; 2) using high-dose acyclovir to prevent cytomegalovirus disease when the CD4 counts drop below 150; and 3) using clarithromycin and ethambutol to prevent Mycobacterium avium complex when CD4 counts drop below 100. This protocol has kept many patients from developing these opportunistic infections. Bihari notes that while the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations are based on FDA-approved treatments and large clinical trials, private practitioners do not necessarily have to follow them.
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No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned.
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Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a multiresistant pathogen that is being isolated with increasing frequency from patients with predisposing factors. Few studies have assessed the epidemiology and clinical relevance of this pathogen in various types of patients from general hospitals.
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A MEDLINE search was used to identify pertinent literature, including reviews.
38,151 pregnant women who had newborn infants without any congenital abnormalities (control group) and 22,865 case pregnant women who had newborns or fetuses with congenital abnormalities.
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The findings of this review support continued recommendations for cotrimoxazole as a priority intervention for HIV-infected pregnant women. It is critical to improve data collection on maternal and infant outcomes.
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End-IP treatment outcomes were exceptional compared to previously published data from international cohorts, thus confirming the usefulness of a hospitalized model of care. However, less than five percent of all estimated 3600 MDR-TB patients in Nigeria were initiated on treatment during the study period. Given the expected scale-up of MDR-TB care, the hospitalized model is challenging to sustain and the national TB programme is contemplating to move to ambulatory care. Hence, we recommend using both ambulatory and hospitalized approaches, with the latter being reserved for selected high-risk groups.