azyth 500mg tablet
Drug-induced phospholipidosis (PLD) is a common adverse effect which has led to the termination of clinical trials for many candidate pharmaceuticals. However, this lipid-inducing effect may be beneficial in the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). MGD is the major cause of dry eye disease (DED), which affects 40 million people in the USA and has no cure. Azithromycin (AZM) is a PLD-inducing antibiotic that is used off-label to treat MGD, and is presumably effective because it suppresses the MGD-associated conjunctival inflammation (i.e. posterior blepharitis) and growth of lid bacteria. We hypothesize that AZM can act directly to promote the function of human meibomian gland epithelial cells by inducing PLD in these cells, characterized by the accumulation of lipids and lysosomes. Immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells (HMGEC) were cultured with or without azithromycin for 5 days. Cells were evaluated for cholesterol (Filipin) and neutral lipid (LipidTox) staining, as well as the appearance of lysosomes (LysoTracker) and lamellar bodies (transmission electron microscopy, TEM). The lipid composition of cellular lysates was analyzed by high performance thin-layer chromatography. Our findings demonstrate that AZM stimulates the accumulation of free cholesterol, neutral lipids and lysosomes in HMGEC. This AZM-induced increase of neutral lipid content occurred predominantly within lysosomes. Many of these vesicles appeared to be lamellar bodies by TEM, which is the characteristic of PLD. Our findings also show that AZM promotes an accumulation of free and esterified cholesterol, as well as phospholipids in HMGECimmortalized. Our results support our hypothesis and confirm the beneficial effect of PLD induced by AZM on HMGEC. Our discovery reveals a new potential use of PLD-inducing drugs, and makes this adverse effect a beneficial effect.
azyth 500 mg
This study was undertaken to determine the frequency and diversity of antimicrobial resistance in gonococcal isolates from cohorts of female commercial sex workers in Bandung and Jakarta, Indonesia, and to characterize the Tet M plasmid among the tetracycline-resistant strains N gonorrhoeae.
tab azyth 500 mg
Two consecutive, open, prospective trials of intermittent azithromycin (600 mg), usually given Monday, Wednesday, and Friday (TIW) for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease were initiated in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients. Regimen A consisted of TIW azithromycin and daily ethambutol (15 mg/kg/day), daily rifabutin (300 mg/day), and initial twice weekly (BIW) streptomycin. Regimen B consisted of TIW azithromycin, TIW ethambutol (25 mg/kg/dose), TIW rifabutin (600 mg/dose), and initial BIW streptomycin. Of 19 patients enrolled in regimen A who completed at least 6 months of therapy, 14 (74%) had sputum samples become culture-negative. Of 39 patients enrolled in regimen B who completed at least 6 months of therapy, 24 (62%) had sputum conversion. These sputum conversion rates are comparable to previous rates at 6 months in patients receiving daily clarithromycin- or azithromycin-containing regimens. No resistance to azithromycin emerged with either regimen. This is the first study to demonstrate the efficacy of intermittent administration of medication for MAC lung disease.
After 42 months of treatment, the prevalence of ocular infection with chlamydia was similar in the groups treated annually and twice yearly. However, elimination of infection might have been more rapid in the groups of villages that received treatment twice yearly.
Diabetic neuropathy is a common chronic complication of diabetes and cause of significant morbidity and mortality, because it may involve the autonomous and peripheral nervous systems. Autonomic diabetic neuropathy is a challenging chronic complication of long-standing diabetes manifested with hypotension, syncope, gastroparesis, diarrhea, constipation, bladder dysfunction, sexual dysfunction, cardiac arrest, and/or sudden death. We present a case of diabetic gastroparesis in an older woman. The patient was an 83-year-old woman with a 40-year history of type 2 diabetes who was admitted with hypoglycemia, malnutrition, persistent vomiting, and obstinate constipation. After several unsuccessful attempts with different therapies, we administered intravenous azithromycin (500 mg/day). After 3 days of treatment, vomiting was resolved and the patient evacuated normal feces, with notable improvement in the general conditions and metabolic control. Because diabetic gastroparesis frequently is difficult to manage clinically and there are few beneficial therapeutic choices available at present, the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin, which has strong prokinetic properties, may be a useful option in the treatment of this complex condition.
The prevalence of chlamydial infection within this population was 7.9%. We find that the most important correlates of chlamydial infection were at least three lifetime sexual partners (p < .005), two or more sexual partners in the preceding 3 months (p < .05), and symptoms of vaginitis (p = .002).
Eight hundred and ninety-eight strains of H. influenzae isolated from randomly selected pediatric out-patients in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou 2000 approximately 2002 underwent determination of antibiotic susceptibility by E test MIC method for beta-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, and cefaclor) and KB disc diffusion method for chloramphenicol, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP), azithromycin, and ciprofloxacin.
A total of 495 subjects were randomized. The modified intent-to-treat (mITT) population with evaluable efficacy consisted of 323 subjects. Baseline patient characteristics did not differ between the mITT groups. Microbial cure rates for WC2031 were 95.5% (95% CI, 92.3-98.8) versus 95.2% (95% CI, 92.0-98.4) for Vibramycin (95% CI for the difference in cure rates, -4.3% to 4.9%). Types of adverse events were comparable. Nausea and vomiting occurred less frequently with WC2031 than with Vibramycin (13% vs 21% and 8% vs 12%, respectively).
azyth 500mg dosage
Chlamydia pneumoniae is the third species of the genus Chlamydia and has been known to cause respiratory tract infections. Since the association between the seropositivity of C. pneumoniae and ischemic heart diseases was reported in 1988, the association between C. pneumoniae and atherosclerosis has been noteworthy. Positive findings of the association between C. pneumoniae and atherosclerosis have been reported as the result of seroepidemiological surveys, histological studies to detect C. pneumoniae in human atherosclerotic tissues, and animal infection models. These data supported that C. pneumoniae infection occurs in human vascular walls and may accelerate the foam cell formation of macrophage and smooth muscle cells, and may play a causative role in atherosclerosis. Several large-scale studies of the antimicrobial prevention of secondary cardiac events are in progress. The genome projects for C. pneumoniae have recently been reported. A number of issues remain unclear, however, and further intensive research is necessary.