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There are no well-matched, controlled studies comparing azithromycin with doxycycline for the treatment of complicated scrub typhus. A retrospective propensity score-matched case-control study was performed for patients who presented with complicated scrub typhus and were treated with doxycycline or azithromycin between 2001 and 2011. Data on comorbidities, clinical manifestations, laboratory studies, treatments, and outcomes were extracted for analysis. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of the azithromycin-treated group (n=73) were compared to those of the doxycycline-treated group (n=108). Of 181 patients, 73 from each group were matched by propensity scores. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the matched groups. The treatment success and survival rates were not significantly different (89% [65/73 patients] versus 96% [70/73 patients] and 96% [70/73 patients] versus 96% [70/73 patients], respectively [P>0.05]). No difference was observed in the time to defervescence or length of hospital stay between the two groups (P>0.05). In complicated scrub typhus patients (n=181), multivariate analysis showed that only APACHE II score was an independent risk factor for mortality (95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 1.56; P<0.001). Our data suggest that outcomes of azithromycin therapy are comparable to those of doxycycline therapy in patients with complicated scrub typhus.
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During the last few years, nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been isolated with increasing frequency in our environment. However, there are only a few reports of pediatric NTM infections in Spain (13 articles since 1990). This article presents an update of the epidemiology, diagnostic methods, and treatment of these infections in children. The most frequent clinical syndromes caused by NTM include lymphadenitis, pulmonary and disseminated infections in immunocompromised children. NTM cervical adenitis usually causes chronic infection associated with sinus tract formation and scarring. The treatment of choice is surgical excision of the involved node. Incision and drainage of the enlarged node should be avoided because it can lead to chronic drainage or sinus tract formation. Medical treatment with azithromycin or clarithromycin associated with rifabutin, ethambutol or ciprofloxacin should be reserved for cases in which the family refuses surgery, a recurrence occurs or complete excision is impossible. Pulmonary disease caused by NTM is relatively rare in immunocompetent children, but is increasingly reported in children with cystic fibrosis. In these patients, the clinical significance of the presence of NTM in the sputum is unclear. The persistence of positive cultures, especially if bacilloscopy is positive and the patient shows clinical evidence of pulmonary disease exacerbation, is an indication to start treatment. Disseminated infection caused by NTM can appear in patients with severe immunodepression, especially in HIV-infected children with CD4 cell counts of less than 100 cells/mm3. Early antibiotic therapy with at least three drugs including a macrolide, and immune recovery with aggressive antiretroviral therapy are the keys to improving quality of life and survival in these patients.
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The pharmacokinetics of azithromycin were determined during a 24 h period following oral administration of a single 500-mg dose to each of six male volunteers. Concentrations in serum, urine and cantharides-induced inflammatory fluid were determined by microbiological assay. The mean peak serum concentration of 0.45 mg/l was obtained at a mean time of 2.6 h post-administration. The elimination half-life from serum was seen to increase with time post-dose; the mean elimination half-life at 16 h post-dose was 9.6 h. Inflammatory fluid was penetrated rapidly, with the mean peak concentration of 0.13 mg/l achieved at a mean time of 3.25 h post-dose. After this peak, levels initially decreased, but after 8 h from drug administration until the end of the trial period, inflammatory fluid concentrations remained relatively constant. The mean inflammatory fluid penetration up to the end of the study period was 74%. The mean urinary recovery of azithromycin, during the initial 24 h post-dose, was 6%.
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Bartonella henselae is the causative agent of cat-scratch disease and other disorders, including hepatosplenic granulomatosis. This infection has only rarely been reported after solid organ transplantation, where it can mimic the more common post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. Here we present a case of asymptomatic B. henselae hepatic and lymph nodal granulomatosis in a pediatric patient who had received orthotopic liver transplant 2 months before; we hypothesize that the causative agent was transmitted from the donor. This infection developed early in the post-transplant period; the disease involved only the graft liver and the regional lymph nodes, and the patient did not have a cat or any history of contact, scratches, or bites by a cat. In our patient this infection resolved successfully with a combination of 2 associated antibiotics and reduction of immunosuppressive therapy.
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A simple liquid chromatographic method was developed for the estimation of azithromycin raw material and in pharmaceutical forms. The sample was chromatographed on a reverse phase C18 column and eluants monitored at a wavelength of 215 nm. The method was accurate, precise and sufficiently selective. It is applicable for its quantitation, stability and dissolution tests.
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Pertussis should be suspected in HCWs with prolonged cough illness, and immediate action is required to limit spread of the disease.
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Isavuconazonium sulfate for injection and all other drugs were reconstituted according to the manufacturer's recommendation and further diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection to a final concentration (1.5 mg/mL for isavuconazonium sulfate and standard concentrations used clinically for other drugs). A Y site was simulated in glass culture tubes by mixing 5 mL of the tested drug and isavuconazonium sulfate solutions in each diluent. Incompatibility was defined as changes in visual characteristics or increases in turbidity by greater than 0.5 nephelometric turbidity units over the 120-minute experiment.
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Pneumococci can enter and survive inside human lung alveolar carcinoma cells. We examined the activity of azithromycin, gentamicin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, penicillin G, rifampin, telithromycin, and trovafloxacin against pneumococci inside and outside cells. We found that moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin, and telithromycin were the most active, but only telithromycin killed all intracellular organisms.
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We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (February 2008), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to February 2008), EMBASE (1974 to February 2008), LILACS (February 2008), mRCT (February 2008), reference lists, and conference abstracts. We also contacted researchers in the field, organizations, and pharmaceutical companies.