Azithromycin and spiramycin markedly inhibited the growth of Toxoplasma gondii in cultured human fibroblasts. However, 3 days of treatment were required to reveal their full antitoxoplasma activity. This delayed onset of inhibition was similar to that previously reported for clindamycin. Mutants of T. gondii resistant to azithromycin (AziR-1) and spiramycin (SprR-1) were isolated and compared with a previously described mutant resistant to clindamycin (ClnR-2). Mutant ClnR-2 was cross-resistant to all three antibiotics, while AziR-1 was cross-resistant only to spiramycin and SprR-1 was cross-resistant only to azithromycin. In short-term studies of protein synthesis by freshly prepared extracellular parasites, clindamycin and azithromycin were effective only at concentrations much greater than their 50% inhibitory concentrations in infected cultures and the resistant mutants did not differ from the wild type in antibiotic sensitivity. Thus, protein synthesis on cytoplasmic ribosomes of the parasite did not seem to be the target of these antibiotics. To determine whether mitochondrial protein synthesis in T. gondii was inhibited by clindamycin or azithromycin, wild-type parasites were grown in cultured cells in the presence of antibiotic concentrations well above the 50% inhibitory concentrations. Mitochondrial function, measured by oxygen uptake per purified extracellular parasite, did not decrease substantially, after the parasites had multiplied 11-fold in the presence of antibiotic. Thus, mitochondrial protein synthesis did not seem to be the target of clindamycin or azithromycin. An alternative target is protein synthesis in the putative apicomplexan organelle that has a 35-kb genome.
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The azithromycin cationic liposomes were prepared by thin film method with freeze-thawing steps. HPLC method was established and validated for the determination of azithromycin in tissues of mice.
Recent data suggest a possible relationship between cystic fibrosis (CF) pharmacotherapy, Aspergillus fumigatus colonization (AC) and/or allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The aim of this study was to determine if anti-fungal defence mechanisms are influenced by CF pharmacotherapy, i.e. if (1) neutrophils form CF and non-CF donors differ in their ability to produce chitotriosidase (CHIT-1); (2) if incubation of isolated neutrophils with azithromycin, salbutamol, prednisolone or rhDNase might influence the CHIT-1 activity; and (3) if NETosis and neutrophil killing efficiency is influenced by rhDNase. Neutrophils were isolated from the blood of CF patients (n = 19; mean age 26·8 years or healthy, non-CF donors (n = 20; 38·7 years) and stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), azithromycin, salbutamol, prednisolone or rhDNase. CHIT-1 enzyme activity was measured with a fluorescent substrate. NETosis was induced by PMA and neutrophil killing efficiency was assessed by a hyphae recovery assay. Neutrophil CHIT-1 activity was comparable in the presence or absence of PMA stimulation in both CF and non-CF donors. PMA stimulation and preincubation with rhDNase increased CHIT-1 activity in culture supernatants from non-CF and CF donors. However, this increase was significant in non-CF donors but not in CF patients (P < 0·05). RhDNase reduced the number of NETs in PMA-stimulated neutrophils and decreased the killing efficiency of leucocytes in our in-vitro model. Azithromycin, salbutamol or prednisolone had no effect on CHIT-1 activity. Stimulation of isolated leucocytes with PMA and treatment with rhDNase interfered with anti-fungal defence mechanisms. However, the impact of our findings for treatment in CF patients needs to be proved in a clinical cohort.
aztrin azithromycin 500 mg
To study pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and drug interactions of multidrug treatment regimens in a large cohort of patients with MAC lung disease.
aztrin 250 mg
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of virulence factors and the antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus faecalis isolates of teeth with failure of the endodontic treatment.
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The treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis with azithromycin (10 mg/kg orally once daily for 3 days) or clarithromycin (7.5 mg/kg orally twice daily for 10 days) was compared in a randomized observer-blind study carried out in 174 children with documented Streptococcus pyogenes infection. The observed cure rate 10 days after the beginning of treatment was 61/63 (96.8%) in the clarithromycin group and 71/74 (95.9%) in the azithromycin group. At days 17-20 the bacteriological eradication rate was 95.2% for clarithromycin and 94.6% for azithromycin. When children who did not complete treatment were included in the analysis the eradication rate was higher for azithromycin (93.6% compared with 82.9%; P < 0.05); the difference was due to better compliance with the azithromycin regimen.
obat aztrin 500 mg
From 1990 to 1996 a total of 67 adult patients with typical erythema migrans (EM) and a previously identified immunocompromised condition were investigated at the University Medical Centre, Department of Infectious Diseases, Ljubljana, Slovenia. The course and outcome of borrelial infection were compared with 67 previously healthy age and sex-matched individuals with EM who were examined at our institution in the same year. Clinical characteristics of Lyme borreliosis before treatment and the duration of EM after the institution of therapy with antibiotics including amoxicillin, azithromycin, cefuroxime-axetil, doxycycline, and ceftriaxone were comparable in both groups. The occurrence of early disseminated borrelial infection before treatment and the frequency of treatment failure (defined as the onset of severe minor or major manifestations of Lyme borreliosis, persistence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in the skin and/or persistence of EM after treatment) were found significantly more often in immunocompromised patients than in the control group (16/67 versus 6/67, respectively; p = 0.0358). Re-treatment was required in 13 (19.4%) patients of the immunocompromised group and only in five (7.5%) patients of the control group (p = 0.0762). However, in spite of the more severe course and the more frequent need for re-treatment among patients whose immune system was impaired, the outcome of borrelial infection after one year was favourable in both groups.
aztrin dry syrup
Syphilis PCR provides better sensitivity in lesion swabs from primary syphilis and displays only moderate sensitivity in blood from primary and secondary syphilis. HIV status did not modify the internal validity of PCR for the diagnosis of primary or secondary syphilis.
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Antibiotic prescription patterns in this population were similar to those in North America, Europe and Asia. To confirm the findings of this study, further research on antibiotic prescription trends across the wider paediatric population of Oman should be initiated.
aztrin 500 mg
The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and antibiotic resistance of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in genital samples obtained from patients examined in the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Centre of the Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Dermatooncology, Semmelweis University, Budapest between May 1, 2008 and July 31, 2010.
In the present study, the susceptibility to some antibiotics was evaluated, and the typing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains was also performed. All Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) strains isolated from January 2012 to October 2014 were included in this work. Gonococcal isolates were tested for susceptibility according to the recommendations of both the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). A total of 65 isolates were typed by the NG multi-antigen sequence types (NG-MAST) technique.
Calcium-channel blockers are metabolized by the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4; EC 18.104.22.168) enzyme. Blood concentrations of these drugs may rise to harmful levels when CYP3A4 activity is inhibited. Clarithromycin is an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and azithromycin is not, which makes comparisons between these 2 macrolide antibiotics useful in assessing clinically important drug interactions.