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In a retrospective study, the response of CFS patients to azithromycin, an antibiotic and immunomodulating drug, has been scored from the patients records and compared with clinical and laboratory data. Azithromycin was not the first choice therapy, but offered when the effect of counseling and L-carnitine was considered insufficient by the patient and the clinician.
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Seven patients who had received HSCT and had been diagnosed as BOS were enrolled in this study. They received weekly intravenous injection of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) at a dose of 1 × 10(6)/kg for 4 weeks. Budesonide was given orally at a daily dose of 0.25 g, and salmeterol was inhaled at a dose of 4.5 µg for 3 times per day. Methylprednisolone was given at a dose of 1 mg/(kg·d) for 2 weeks when respiratory failure occured. The dose of methylprednisolone was tapered to 0.25 mg/(kg·d) after 4 weeks and was adjusted according to the occurrence and severity of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD).
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We conducted a cluster-randomized clinical trial of mass azithromycin administration for trachoma control. Forty-eight communities (known as subkebeles) were randomized into 1 of 3 treatment schedules (annual treatment of all residents [15,902 participants], biannual treatment of all residents [17,288 participants], or quarterly treatment of children only [14,716 participants]) or into 1 group for which treatment was delayed by 1 year (control, 18,498 participants). Twelve subkebeles were randomized to each of the 4 schedules with all children in each of the 3 communities being eligible for treatment. The trial was conducted in a field setting in rural Ethiopia, May 2006 to May 2007.
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The single most important cause of late mortality after lung transplantation is obliterative bronchiolitis (OB), clinically characterized by a decrease in lung function and morphologically by characteristic changes. Recently, new insights into its pathogenesis have been acquired: risk factors have been identified and the use of azithromycin showed a dichotomy with at least 2 different phenotypes of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). It is clear that a good animal model is indispensable to further dissect and unravel the pathogenesis of BOS. Many animal models have been developed to study BOS but, so far, none of these models truly mimics the human situation. Looking at the definition of BOS, a good animal model implies histological OB lesions, possibility to measure lung function, and airway inflammation. This review sought to discuss, including pros and cons, all potential animal models that have been developed to study OB/BOS. It has become clear that a new animal model is needed; recent developments using an orthotopic mouse lung transplantation model may offer the answer because it mimics the human situation. The genetic variants among this species may open new perspectives for research into the pathogenesis of OB/BOS.
Consistent with previous research, community-wide administration of azithromycin reduces trachoma prevalence. Our observation that less intensive treatment with a 'household' strategy in moderate prevalence communities (5-<20%) is associated with similar reductions in prevalence over time, will require confirmation in other settings if it is to be used as a basis for changes in control strategies.
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Results were expressed as mean±standard deviation and percentages and the data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16.0, SPSS, Chicago, IL) software.
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Prevalence of ocular chlamydial infection in all children aged 1 to 5 years from each intervention village prior to treatment and 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after mass antibiotic treatment, and also in untreated villages enrolled at 12 months.
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MICs determined by MGIT methods showed 80%-100% agreement (+/-1 log(2) dilution) with those determined by the BACTEC and agar dilution methods for ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, azithromycin and clofazimine. The MGIT and BACTEC methods showed 70%, 80% and 90% agreement (+/-1 log(2) dilution) for MICs of ethambutol, rifabutin and rifampicin; agreement for all drugs increased to 100% at 2 log(2) dilution differences. For clarithromycin, the MGIT method had greater agreement with the agar dilution method (70% at the same dilution) than the BACTEC method (60% at +/-1 log(2) dilution); agreement increased to 100% at +/-2 log(2) dilutions in both cases. The MGIT and agar dilution methods agreed 60% and 100% for amikacin MICs at +/-1 log(2) dilution and +/-2 log(2) dilutions, respectively. By all methods MICs were higher than achievable serum concentrations for isoniazid and dapsone. There was 100% agreement between all three methods for azithromycin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin, and 80% agreement for rifampicin using published MIC thresholds available for M. avium complex strains.
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Average antibiotic coverage over the study period was 90% and 94% in the 2 villages. Clinical trachoma activity in children aged 1 to 5 years decreased from 78% and 83% in the 2 villages before treatment to 17% and 24% at 42 months. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) evidence of infection in the same age group decreased from 48% to 0% in both villages at 42 months. When all age groups were examined, there were zero cases with evidence of chlamydial RNA among 758 total villagers tested.
Definitions of periimplant mucositis vary in the literature, and no clear criteria have been established regarding the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder. It highlights our lack of uniform treatment and need to establish additional research to fully provide effective treatments for this common condition. More, larger, and longer-term RCTs are needed in this periimplant disease.
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This prospective, randomized, single-blind, open study was carried out in 78 cases of AOM. Mean age was 30.7+/-27 months. Tympanocentesis and aspiration of middle ear fluid (MEF) were used to obtain purulent material from the middle ear. Group 1 consisted of the cases (n=41) on azitromycin therapy and Group 2 (n=37) on cefaclor. Dosage of azitromycin was 10 mg/kg per day for 3 days and cefaclor 40 mg/kg per day for 10 days. The patients were evaluated on days 3-5 (second visit), day 10 (third visit), and day 30 (fourth visit) during follow-up.