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An in vitro assay for measuring and comparing the efficacy of different antimicrobial agents against Chlamydia pneumoniae was developed. Azithromycin, a representative of the new azalide group of antibiotics, and doxycycline were evaluated with respect to their antibacterial effect and capacity for intracellular killing under different experimental conditions. For both study drugs, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values increased significantly with longer bacterial preincubation time. The effect of different exposure times of antibiotics on the bacteria was also studied.
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Survival, survival free of disseminated M. avium complex infection, and CD4(+) cell count responses.
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We included 19 trials (5839 randomised participants); seven compared penicillin with cephalosporins, six compared penicillin with macrolides, three compared penicillin with carbacephem, one trial compared penicillin with sulphonamides, one trial compared clindamycin with ampicillin, and one trial compared azithromycin with amoxicillin in children. All included trials reported clinical outcomes. Reporting of randomisation, allocation concealment, and blinding was poor in all trials. The overall quality of the evidence assessed using the GRADE tool was low for the outcome 'resolution of symptoms' in the intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis and very low for the outcomes 'resolution of symptoms' of evaluable participants and for adverse events. We downgraded the quality of evidence mainly due to lack of (or poor reporting of) randomisation or blinding, or both, heterogeneity, and wide confidence intervals (CIs).There was a difference in symptom resolution in favour of cephalosporins compared with penicillin (evaluable patients analysis odds ratio (OR) for absence of resolution of symptoms 0.51, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.97; number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB) 20, N = 5, n = 1660; very low quality evidence). However, this was not statistically significant in the ITT analysis (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.12; N = 5, n = 2018; low quality evidence). Clinical relapse was lower for cephalosporins compared with penicillin (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.99; NNTB 50, N = 4, n = 1386; low quality evidence), but this was found only in adults (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.88; NNTB 33, N = 2, n = 770). There were no differences between macrolides and penicillin for any of the outcomes. One unpublished trial in children found a better cure rate for azithromycin in a single dose compared to amoxicillin for 10 days (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.73; NNTB 18, N = 1, n = 482), but there was no difference between the groups in ITT analysis (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.05; N = 1, n = 673) or at long-term follow-up (evaluable patients analysis OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.82; N = 1, n = 422). Children experienced more adverse events with azithromycin compared to amoxicillin (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.78 to 3.99; N = 1, n = 673). Compared with penicillin carbacephem showed better symptom resolution post-treatment in adults and children combined (ITT analysis OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.99; NNTB 14, N = 3, n = 795), and in the subgroup analysis of children (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.99; NNTB 8, N = 1, n = 233), but not in the subgroup analysis of adults (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.46 to 1.22, N = 2, n = 562). Children experienced more adverse events with macrolides compared with penicillin (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.06 to 5.15; N = 1, n = 489). Studies did not report on long-term complications so it was unclear if any class of antibiotics was better in preventing serious but rare complications.
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Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease agent worldwide, enters a viable, non-dividing and non-infectious state (historically termed persistence and more recently referred to as the chlamydial stress response) when exposed to penicillin G in culture. Notably, penicillin G-exposed chlamydiae can reenter the normal developmental cycle upon drug removal and are resistant to azithromycin-mediated killing. Because penicillin G is less frequently prescribed than other β-lactams, the clinical relevance of penicillin G-induced chlamydial persistence/stress has been questioned. The goal of this study was to determine whether more commonly used penicillins also induce C. trachomatis serovar E persistence/stress. All penicillins tested, as well as clavulanic acid, induced formation of aberrant, enlarged reticulate bodies (RB) (called aberrant bodies or AB) characteristic of persistent/stressed chlamydiae. Exposure to the penicillins and clavulanic acid also reduced chlamydial infectivity by >95%. None of the drugs tested significantly reduced chlamydial unprocessed 16S rRNA or genomic DNA accumulation, indicating that the organisms were viable, though non-infectious. Finally, recovery assays demonstrated that chlamydiae rendered essentially non-infectious by exposure to ampicillin, amoxicillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin, penicillin V, and clavulanic acid recovered infectivity after antibiotic removal. These data definitively demonstrate that several commonly used penicillins induce C. trachomatis persistence/stress at clinically relevant concentrations.
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This survey was conducted 18 months following a single round of azithromycin mass treatment in the same communities in which we had conducted our previous six-month follow-up survey. We examined children aged 1-14 years and took blood and lesion samples for yaws diagnosis using the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA) and the non-treponemal Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) test.
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Manometric data on a consecutive series of 21 patients was reviewed. Only those patients with gastroparesis and small bowel dysmotility as defined by antroduodenal manometric criteria were included. Pressure profiles were recorded in three stages: baseline period, fed state and postprandial after administration of erythromycin (ERY) and AZI. The measured parameters included the number and characteristics of activity fronts and migrating motor complexes (MMCs) including duration, amplitude and frequency of contractions. The data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance for comparison of each medication.
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Genital ulcer disease by virtue of disruption of the mucosal surfaces may enhance HIV acquisition. Genital ulcer disease treatment with resolution of the ulcers may therefore contribute in reducing the sexual acquisition of HIV.
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Cytauxzoon felis, an emerging virulent protozoan parasite that infects domestic cats, is treated with atovaquone and azithromycin (A&A). Atovaquone targets parasite cytochrome b. We characterized the C. felis cytochrome b gene (cytb) in cats with cytauxzoonosis and found a cytb genotype that was associated with survival in A&A-treated cats.
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The failure of azithromycin to cure a substantial number of patients with primary and secondary syphilis in Shanghai suggests that azithromycin has limited therapeutic value in this setting.
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Mycobacterium sherrisii was first described as a novel species in 2004 but recently has begun to be more formally recognized with the use of new sequencing techniques. There have only been about 10 cases reported internationally, and we report the first case of M sherrisii in the United States. The mycobacterium was isolated from acid-fast bacilli cultures of a specimen obtained from a bronchoalveolar lavage and blood in a newly diagnosed HIV-infected, US-born patient presenting with sepsis. The patient was started on streptomycin, ethambutol, azithromycin, and rifampin with an improved clinical course. This report indicates the clinical presentation along with the varying drug susceptibilities to the emerging M sherrisii.
Because of its prevalence and severity, Babesia microti infection is an important public health problem. The current treatment of choice is clindamycin plus quinine. However, in some cases other treatments are needed because of drug intolerance or relapse. The activity of azithromycin was investigated for treatment of babesiosis in the hamster model. All animals received vancomycin to prevent antibiotic-associated colitis. Quinine (250 mg/kg/day), azithromycin (150 mg/kg/day), and the combination of azithromycin and quinine were compared. A significant suppression of parasitemia was found in all treatment groups (combination had the greatest effect, followed by azithromycin, then quinine; P < .05). The mean survival was significantly prolonged in the combination group (P < .05). Azithromycin as monotherapy in a higher dose (300 mg/kg/day) also resulted in a significant prolongation of survival (P < .05). Spirogermanium and ciprofloxacin, which have been reported to have antimalarial activity, had no effect on parasitemia or survival in this experimental babesiosis model.
Distribution of different species of Shigella and their antibiotic susceptibility profile may vary from one geographical location to another and may also change with time. Systematic monitoring of the species and serotypes of Shigellae and their antimicrobial susceptibility can help to guide therapy and reveal periodic epidemics due to Sd 1, which may have acquired resistance to antibiotics that have previously been effective. Key words: Dysentery, Shigella, Shigella dysenteriae type-1, Antimicrobial resistance.