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Amelioration of alveolitis and lung fibrosis after treatment with azithromycin was shown in pathological section (P < 0.05). The activity of NF-kappaB was significantly higher in one-week pulmonary fibrosis model than that in normal control and its level in alveolar macrophage reduced (67.2%) after treatment with azithromycin. The level of protein and mRNA of TNFalpha, TGF-beta in lung tissue and alveolar macrophage was increased in the early stage of pulmonary fibrosis and reduced after treatment with azithromycin (P < 0.05).
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C. pneumoniae is frequently found in the advanced carotid atherosclerotic lesions of patients undergoing endarterectomy. Although these findings do not establish causality in carotid artery atherosclerosis, they should stimulate investigation of the possible causal or pathogenic role of C. pneumoniae. Notably, the profiles of antibiotic susceptibility of C. pneumoniae isolated from 4 of the patients did not differ from those of the reference strain.
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Azithromycin was shown to be as effective as standard benzathine penicillin and erythromycin in the therapy of active syphilis in the rabbit model. Following production of primary chancres by intradermal inoculation of 10(6) Treponema pallidum, groups of six rabbits were treated with benzathine penicillin (200,000 units im weekly for two weeks), erythromycin base (30 mg/kg/day orally four times daily for 15 days) or azithromycin (30 mg/kg/day given orally once or twice daily for 15 days); one group was untreated. Daily darkfield (DF) microscopic examinations of chancre aspirates were conducted to identify motile organisms. Although all treated animals became DF negative prior to completion of therapy, the median time to DF negativity was longer in animals given azithromycin once daily, compared with animals receiving benzathine penicillin (P less than 0.01); no difference was seen in comparison with animals receiving erythromycin. Untreated animals remained DF positive for greater than 15 days. The mean maximum lesion diameters for all treated animals were similar and were significantly smaller than in untreated rabbits; fewer lesions ulcerated in treated than in untreated animals. Subsequent dose-ranging studies indicated that administration of lower doses of azithromycin (15 mg/kg/day given orally either once or twice daily, or 7.5 mg/kg/day given once daily) was as effective as benzathine penicillin for therapy of active syphilis in this model, though the median time to darkfield negativity was significantly longer in the azithromycin-treated animals (P less than 0.01). Persistent infection was demonstrable in lymph nodes of untreated animals, but no evidence of virulent T. pallidum was found three months following transfer of tissue from any animal treated with penicillin, erythromycin, or azithromycin.
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This meta-analysis demonstrates prophylactic azithromycin therapy was associated with statistically significant reduction in BPD and the composite outcome of BPD/death in preterm infants. However, given the limited information on pharmacokinetics and potential harmful effects, further studies should be done before routine use of azithromycin in the neonatal population.
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Following surveys in 2004-2006 in 50 high-risk districts of mainland Tanzania, trachoma was still suspected to be widespread elsewhere. We report on baseline surveys undertaken from 2012 to 2014.
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A Real-time quantitative PCR assay to quantify the Toxoplasma gondii apicoplast was studied. Primers were designed to amplify a 305bp product specific to T. gondii apicoplast. Standard curves were generated for both T. gondii apicoplast DNA and genomic DNA, and were used to compute the relative concentration of apicoplast DNA copies in the test samples. The results indicated that the copies of T. gondii apicoplast DNA was significantly low when exposed to ciprofloxacin, clindamycin and azithromycin for 48h in the second infectious cycle. Our study shows that the Real-time PCR technique is a simple and quick technique for screening the anti-apicoplast drugs.
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Penicillin resistance rates were as follows: South Korea, 70.1%; Hong Kong, 50.3%; Thailand, 39.3%; France, 28.7%; Spain, 24.8%; Mexico, 18.1%; Ireland, 11.8%; South Africa, 11.1%; Italy, 9.4%; United Kingdom, 3.1%; Brazil, 2.9%; China, 2.3%, and Germany, 0.7%. Resistance to azithromycin, clarithromycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was commonly associated with penicillin resistance. Levofloxacin-resistant isolates were detected in 8 of 13 countries: Germany (0.2%), France (0.4%), Thailand (0.5%), South Korea (0.9%), Mexico (1.5%), Spain (1.6%), China (3.3%) and Hong Kong (8.0%). Multidrug resistance (resistance to >/=3 antimicrobial classes) occurred in 626/5,015 isolates (12.5%). Levofloxacin was active against 96.0% (601/626) of the multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates and 99.7% (4,374/4,389) of the non-MDR isolates.
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Azithromycin increased arginase expression in vitro, as well as the activation of latent TGFβ, consistent with polarization to the alternative macrophage phenotype. While the drug increased fibronectin concentrations after stimulation in vitro, secretion of the ECM-degrading enzyme MMP-9 was also increased. Neutralization of active TGFβ resulted in the ablation of azithromycin's ability to increase fibronectin concentrations, but did not alter its ability to increase MMP-9 expression. In P. aeruginosa-infected mice, azithromycin significantly decreased MMP-9 and fibronectin concentrations in the alveolar space compared with non-treated, infected controls.
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The primary resistance to 9 antibiotics of 73 H. pylori strains isolated from gastric biopsies of children recruited at Beijing Children's Hospital was assessed, and the mutations in 23S rRNA gene of 65 macrolide-resistant strains and in gyrA and gyrB of 12 quinolone-resistant strains were investigated.