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Postkeratoplasty epithelial healing and ocular tolerance were not significantly different between the azithromycin- and tobramycin-treatment groups. Our results support the use of azithromycin as an alternative to tobramycin after corneal surgery such as keratoplasty.
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From 2002 to 2003, a total of 381 consecutive S. pyogenes isolates were obtained from throat swabs (n = 337) and samples of pus (n = 31), sputum (n=10) and blood (n = 3) at Hacettepe University Hospital. The susceptibility of the isolates to erythromycin was tested by the agar dilution method. Erythromycin resistant strains were then tested for their MICs to azithromycin, clindamycin, and penicillin, their phenotype of resistance to macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B (MLSB) and for the presence of macrolide resistance genes. The rate of resistance to erythromycin was 6.8%. Constitutive (cMLSB), inducible (iMLSB), and M phenotypes of resistance were detected in 7.7, 30.8, and 57.7% of resistant strains, respectively. One strain had both cMLSB and iMLSB phenotypes. All M phenotypes carried the mefA gene, all iMLSB phenotype carried the ermTR gene, 1 isolate with cMLSB phenotype harboured the ermB gene, and 1 isolate with cMLSB phenotype carried both the ermB and mefA genes. One strain which showed cMLSB and iMLSB phenotypes harboured the ermB gene.
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In the 1980s, the major pathogen isolated was Mycobacterium abscessus. In the 1990 s, Mycobacterium chelonae emerged as the major pathogen. By 2000, it was responsible for more than 50% of all cases. The majority of M. abscessus and Mycobacterium fortuitum were from southern coastal states and Texas, whereas M. chelonae isolates were more widespread geographically. The most active antimicrobials were amikacin and clarithromycin/azithromycin for M. abscessus and clarithromycin/azithromycin, amikacin, and tobramycin, and the quinolones for M. chelonae.
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Mycoplasma genitalium is a sexually transmitted organism commonly treated with azithromycin. However, macrolide resistance has been reported and is associated with point mutations in the 23S rRNA gene. To evaluate the prevalence of macrolide resistance in M. genitalium isolates from clinical specimens from France, we first used a previously reported high-resolution melting assay. Because susceptible and resistant M. genitalium isolates were hardly discriminated in M. genitalium-positive clinical specimens, we developed a new molecular assay for the rapid detection of macrolide resistance. An assay using real-time PCR based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) coupled with melting curve analysis was designed. The assay was first validated on characterized macrolide-resistant M. genitalium isolates and then applied to 202 urogenital M. genitalium-positive specimens collected from 178 patients from France in 2011 and 2012. Resistant genotypes were confirmed by 23S rRNA gene sequencing. Among the 202 M. genitalium-positive specimens, 155 were amplified, demonstrating a sensitivity of 76.7%. A substitution in the 23S rRNA gene was found in 14.2% of the patient samples. Nine and six patients had M. genitalium isolates with a substitution at positions 2059 and 2058, respectively. In four cases, a mixed population of wild-type and mutated M. genitalium isolates was observed. The prevalence of M. genitalium macrolide resistance has been stable in France since its detection in 2006. Our FRET PCR assay is able to discriminate between wild-type and resistant genotypes directly from clinical specimens. This assay will allow clinicians to shorten the time to the initiation of effective disease treatment.
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Azithromycin, has been proved to be effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of a wide variety of infections. While the penetration of azithromycin into a number of types of mammalian cells has been well characterized, the influence of HIV infection on the intracellular disposition of this agent has not been studied. We therefore studied the disposition of azithromycin in polymorphonuclear (PMN) and mononuclear (MONO) leukocytes from six healthy volunteers and six volunteers with AIDS. After oral administration of a single 1200-mg dose of azithromycin (two 600-mg tablets), blood samples were collected over 6 days and intracellular azithromycin concentrations in MONOs and PMNs were measured. Analysis of the intracellular pharmacokinetics revealed an apparent difference in the MONO and PMN profile; this profile was similar for both groups. Intracellular concentrations of azithromycin remained high throughout the study period. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences in the intracellular area under the curve (11309+/-2543 vs. 16650+/-6254 for PMN; 14180+/-3802 vs. 21211+/-10001 for MONO) were observed between the healthy and AIDS populations, respectively. Our data confirm the extensive uptake of azithromycin by white blood cells both in healthy volunteers and in AIDS patients.
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The pharmacokinetics in serum and leukocyte (WBC) exposures of 1,500 mg of oral azithromycin administered as 3-day (500 mg/day, days 1 to 3) and 5-day (500 mg on day 1 and 250 mg/day on days 2 to 5) regimens were compared in 12 healthy volunteers. Serum, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and mononuclear leukocytes were collected over a 12-day period from the start of each regimen. Results of the study indicate that the exposures of serum and both types of WBCs were similar with both regimens. Drug concentrations in day 12 WBCs were well above the MICs for all relevant community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens. Terminal half-lives in serum obtained by both regimens were essentially equal at 66 h and consistent with past reports. These results indicate that the standard 1,500-mg dose of oral azithromycin can be administered over either 5 or 3 days.
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Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations were performed on the isolates in the microbiology laboratory at Tygerberg Hospital according to the recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS).
To examine the outcome among patients with disseminated M. avium complex infection whose antimycobacterial therapy was discontinued after a favorable response to HAART.
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The study was conducted in five hospitals in Spain and included all patients undergoing intravitreal injections of triamcinolone, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, or pegaptanib over one year. Patients received azithromycin 15 mg/g eye drops (twice daily on the day prior to injection and for another 2 days) or ofloxacin 3 mg/g eye drops (every 6 hours on the day prior to injection and for another 7 days).
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To investigate the infection and the drug resistance status of mycoplasma and chlamydiae in genitourinary tracts of children with suspected nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) and provide information for clinical rational administration of antimicrobial agents.
The detection rate of MRSA was 78.4%. The sensitivity rate of MRSA to both vancomycin and teicoplanin was 100.0%, while to other antibiotics (oxacillin, benzylpenicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftiaxone, cefepime, cefoxitin, imipenem, piperacillin and tazobactam, azithromycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, amikacin, gentamicin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin) MRSA was multi-drug resistant. The detection rates of norA, qacA, qacB and qacJ were 67.5% (54/80), 15.0% (12/80), 21.2% (17/80) and 11.2% (9/80), respectively. Combined use of omeprazole and levofloxacin could lower MIC value.
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The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ten antibiotics were determined by the agar dilution method for 40 strains of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, all of which were clinical isolates from this laboratory. The antibiotics tested were clarithromycin, erythromycin, teicoplanin, vancomycin, ceftriaxone, cefodizime, azithromycin, ramoplanin, ciprofloxacin and MDL 62873. Of these agents, clarithromycin, vancomycin, teicoplanin, ceftriaxone, ramoplanin and MDL 62873 were the most active. The role of these antibiotics as alternatives to penicillin for the treatment of infections caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae is discussed.