During the three years 1981-3, 134 (9.1%) of 1473 patients presenting at our clinics were found to be infected with penicillinase producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of benzylpenicillin and ampicillin against these PPNG strains were 8 mg/l or more, whereas against non-PPNG strains they were consistently 4 mg/l or less. In contrast, the MIC of BRL25000 (two parts amoxycillin and one part clavulanic acid, the beta lactamase inhibitor) was 4 mg/l or less even against PPNG strains. MICs of a number of other drugs commonly used to treat gonorrhoea, such as cephaloridine, cefoxitin, tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, kanamycin, and spectinomycin, showed no appreciable differences between non-PPNG and PPNG strains and the MIC of cephaloridine in particular was relatively high. BRL25000 proved to be very effective in the treatment of PPNG infection and cured all of 121 patients treated. A daily dose of 2.25g, cured 105 patients in two days, 11 patients in three days, four patients in four days, and one patient in five days. A new rapid diagnostic method for detecting PPNG strains, capable of application at an outpatient clinic and providing a result on the following day, is described.
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Clarithromycin and amoxicillin/clavulanate (A/C) are first line antibiotics used to treat uncomplicated acute rhinosinusitis (ARS). This study examined the efficacy of clarithromycin and A/C for the treatment of ARS relative to the patient's quality of life (QOL).
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Infants under 3 months of age, hospitalized at Robert Debré university hospital, Paris, France, between January 2005 and December 2009 for acute bacterial parotitis, were included in a retrospective study.
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E. coli is the main agent of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) and accounts for more than 85% of recurrent cystitis and at least 35% of recurrent pyelonephritis. Despite the widespread availability of antibiotics, UTIs remain the most common bacterial infection in the human population. It is currently advised that the clinical administration of antibiotics against the pathogenic bacteria should be prohibitted due to the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial strains. Therefore, newer and more effective antimicrobials are in demand to treat such cases. One hundred and thirty six urine samples were collected from UTI patients. E. coli was isolated from 85 samples, out of which 33% were resistant to common antibiotics. The isolates were decreasingly resistant to ampicillin, tobramycin, augmentin, nalidixic acid, cefuroxime, nitrofurantoin, kanamycin, pipemidic acid, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, cefamendol, ofloxacin, ceftizoxime, norfloxacin and amikacin. The anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac exhibited significant antibacterial activity against common bacterial strains both in vitro and in vivo. The present work was conducted to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of this drug on the clinically isolated strains of E. coli in hospitals. All the isolates were sensitive to diclofenac, with MIC values ranging from 5-50 microg/mL. The MIC90 value of the drug was 25 microg/mL. Therefore, it may be suggested that diclofenac has the capacity to treat UTI caused by E. coli.
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The most common adverse outcome associated with vaginal delivery is endometritis. It plays a significant role in postpartum morbidity and mortality. There is considerable evidence to support the idea that a single dose of antibiotic after vaginal delivery might decrease the incidence of postpartum endometritis. In this study the evaluation of the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis was based upon comparison of a group of patients given a single dose of Amox-CA (Augmentin) with a group of patients without treatment. The study was performed in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the A. Béclère Public Hospital, Clamart, France (Paris-Sud University). The patients who were the subject of the study had delivered vaginally during the period of 1 year, and were free of any clinical diagnosis of chorioamnionitis or other extragenital infection, had a maternal temperature of less than 38 degrees C during labor and 1 h after delivery, and had no history of allergy to penicillins or cephalosporins. After application of exclusion criteria, 1373 patients were randomized and 1291 included 610 in Group I given Amox-CA and 681 in Group II without any antibiotic. A single dose of 1.2 g of Amox-CA was given by intravenous injection, 1 h after delivery, in Group I. Patients of Group II received no injection. Postpartum status was evaluated before the patient left hospital and 2 weeks later. The two groups were similar in terms of demographic and clinical parameters. Four patients developed endometritis in Group I (4/610, 0.66%). Sixteen patients in Group II developed endometritis (16/680, 2.38%) (P = 0.013; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.36-3.08%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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The efficacy and safety of a once-a-day antibiotic in the treatment of sinusitis was studied. Two randomly assigned groups were treated with either once-a-day cefixime, a third generation cephalosporin, or amoxicillin three times a day. One hundred and fourteen patients were evaluated with antral punctures, microbiologic evaluation, and radiographic studies. Cultures revealed 40% gram-negative organisms, 48% gram-positive, and 12% anaerobes. The most common bacteria were Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and viridans group streptococci. Ninety-four percent of the cefixime group were cured compared with 96% of the amoxicillin group. Staphylococcus resistance was a problem in both groups, necessitating an occasional change to amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium in the amoxicillin group. Once-a-day antibiotics offer the potential for improved compliance in the treatment of sinusitis. Cefixime offers an additional benefit of covering beta-lactamase producing strains of bacteria which are increasing in incidence and resistant to many penicillins.
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The majority of patients with upper-respiratory-tract infection do not benefit from antibiotics and side-effects are frequent. However, for the subgroup whose nasopharyngeal secretions contain H influenzae, M catarrhalis, or S pneumoniae, antibiotics are clinically beneficial.
The in vitro activity of amoxycillin-clavulanic acid was compared with four comparator oral antimicrobial agents; ampicillin, azithromycin, cefuroxime and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole against 4536 recent clinical isolates covering 29 species isolated in the US and Canada between 1997 and 1999. Based upon Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), amoxycillin-clavulanic acid was the most active agent against many Gram-positive species and phenotypes including methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae including penicillin intermediate and macrolide resistant strains and was as active as ampicillin against Streptococcus agalactiae, penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae and viridans streptococci. Against Enterobacteriaceae amoxycillin-clavulanic acid in general, displayed weak activity with only Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris displaying levels of susceptibility above the 90th percentile. Amoxycillin-clavulanic acid had significant activity against many species of Gram-negative non-Enterobacteriaceae including Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis but negligible activity against Burkholderia cepacia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Amoxycillin-clavulanic acid continues to retain excellent activity against the majority of targeted pathogens despite 20 years of clinical use.