Electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, and SciSearch through July or August 2004 and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials through 2004 (issue 3). We performed hand searches of reference lists, conference proceedings, and clinical trial databases. Experts in rosacea and azelaic acid were contacted.
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The role of Helicobacter pylori infection in nonulcer dyspepsia remains controversial. To date studies exploring the effect of H. pylori eradication on symptoms have reported conflicting results. Randomised control trials employing validated outcome measures have also been difficult to interpret because of several important issues such as the large placebo response seen in patients with nonulcer dyspepsia and both the natural variability in symptoms and symptom severity with time. The association of symptom improvement with resolution of gastritis has meant that the length of follow up employed in most studies has been insufficient. We report the findings of a randomised placebo controlled trial (n = 100), using a validated symptom questionnaire and 5 year follow up to determine the effect of H. pylori eradication on symptoms in nonulcer dyspepsia. In all 64 that were reviewed at 5 years there was a significant difference between patients who were H. pylori negative and those who remained positive with regard to complete symptom resolution, consumption of relevant medications and peptic ulcer disease development, in favour of active treatment. There was a trend for gradual symptom improvement over time irrespective of H. pylori status, which may reflect the natural history of this condition. For those who remained symptomatic at 5 years, there was no difference in symptom severity based on H. pylori status. The findings of this study support the use of H. pylori eradication in symptomatic patients with nonulcer dyspepsia both to induce symptom resolution and to prevent disease progression.
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Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) have been well studied for adult cases, but not as well in the pediatric population. Whether the disease process or response to treatments differs between pediatric and adult patients is an important clinical concern when following global guidelines based largely on adult patients. A systematic review of the literature using databases PubMed (June 3, 1978-2015) was conducted to compare AAD and CDI in pediatric and adult populations and determine significant differences and similarities that might impact clinical decisions. In general, pediatric AAD and CDI have a more rapid onset of symptoms, a shorter duration of disease and fewer CDI complications (required surgeries and extended hospitalizations) than in adults. Children experience more community-associated CDI and are associated with smaller outbreaks than adult cases of CDI. The ribotype NAP1/027/BI is more common in adults than children. Children and adults share some similar risk factors, but adults have more complex risk factor profiles associated with more co-morbidities, types of disruptive factors and a wider range of exposures to C. difficile in the healthcare environment. The treatment of pediatric and adult AAD is similar (discontinuing or switching the inciting antibiotic), but other treatment strategies for AAD have not been established. Pediatric CDI responds better to metronidazole, while adult CDI responds better to vancomycin. Recurrent CDI is not commonly reported for children. Prevention for both pediatric and adult AAD and CDI relies upon integrated infection control programs, antibiotic stewardship and may include the use of adjunctive probiotics. Clinical presentation of pediatric AAD and CDI are different than adult AAD and CDI symptoms. These differences should be taken into account when rating severity of disease and prescribing antibiotics.
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Drug resistance in parasitic protozoa is an obstacle to successful chemotherapy. Understanding how pathogens respond to drugs is crucial in preventing resistance. Previously, we have shown that in Entamoeba histolytica, methionine γ-lyase (EhMGL) downregulation results in trifluoromethionine resistance. The transcriptional response, however, of this parasite to the drug is not known. In this study, we used microarray analysis to determine whether additional genes are involved.
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Although the nimB gene may be implicated in the high-level metronidazole resistance in 2 F. magna strains, the alarmingly high prevalence of the nimB gene in anaerobic Gram-positive cocci cannot be directly associated with resistance and the possibility of a silent nimB gene should be considered.
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Fusobacterium necrophorum is an anaerobic, gram-negative highly virulent bacillus, isolated from the oropharingeal cavity, the gastrointestinal tract, and the female genital tract. It is responsible of several clinical syndromes, mainly in children or adolescents, ranging from localized abscess, usually in the upper respiratory sites, to severe septicemic diseases, including meningitis. We report the fatal case of an immunocompetent male with suppurative otitis media and meningitis. Initial empiric antibiotic treatment was not effective. After the recovery of anaerobic gram-negative bacilli from blood cultures, treatment with metronidazole was started, and a rapid improvement in laboratory parameters was observed. However, the patient's clinical course was incurable because of cerebral hypertensive complications. F. necrophorum was identified as the causative agent of this metastatic and fatal infection. This case has shown the severity of infection due to F. necrophorum and, at the same time, the underestimation of anaerobic bacteria in the spectrum of etiologic agents responsible for meningitis. Only a prompt diagnosis and an adequate treatment can improve the prognosis and avoid a fatal outcome.
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At surgical department of Faculty hospital Brno, during March-June 2008 an 88 patients were operated because of different diagnoses in colorectum. Both an emergent and schedule operations were made. Type of ATBs, time of application before operation, reapplication after operation and surgical site infection (SSI), in - hospital stay were followed up prospectively. SSI were divided into superficial, deep and intraabdominal. Data were analyse statistically.
Although Clostridium difficile is the most common infectious etiology of nosocomial diarrhea, noninfectious causes are far more common. Empiric initiation of therapy for all patients is of unknown value. The aim of this study was to determine benefits of empiric metronidazole for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD).
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This study extends earlier reports regarding the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of the nitroimidazopyran PA-824 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PA-824 was tested in vitro against a broad panel of multidrug-resistant clinical isolates and was found to be highly active against all isolates (MIC<1 microg/ml). The activity of PA-824 against M. tuberculosis was also assessed grown under conditions of oxygen depletion. PA-824 showed significant activity at 2, 10, and 50 microg/ml, similar to that of metronidazole, in a dose-dependent manner. In a short-course mouse infection model, the efficacy of PA-824 at 50, 100, and 300 mg/kg of body weight formulated in methylcellulose or cyclodextrin/lecithin after nine oral treatments was compared with those of isoniazid, rifampin, and moxifloxacin. PA-824 at 100 mg/kg in cyclodextrin/lecithin was as active as moxifloxacin at 100 mg/kg and isoniazid at 25 mg/kg and was slightly more active than rifampin at 20 mg/kg. Long-term treatment with PA-824 at 100 mg/kg in cyclodextrin/lecithin reduced the bacterial load below 500 CFU in the lungs and spleen. No significant differences in activity between PA-824 and the other single drug treatments tested (isoniazid at 25 mg/kg, rifampin at 10 mg/kg, gatifloxacin at 100 mg/kg, and moxifloxacin at 100 mg/kg) could be observed. In summary, its good activity in in vivo models, as well as its activity against multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis and against M. tuberculosis isolates in a potentially latent state, makes PA-824 an attractive drug candidate for the therapy of tuberculosis. These data indicate that there is significant potential for effective oral delivery of PA-824 for the treatment of tuberculosis.
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Conditioned supernatants from gut microbes were used to stimulate murine innate cell types in vitro and in vivo, and proinflammatory responses were characterised. Effects of antibiotic therapies on these responses were investigated using a model of experimental intestinal barrier damage induced by dextran sodium sulfate.