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There was a reduction in the use of all targeted broad-spectrum antibiotics and an increase in all targeted narrow-spectrum antibiotics, statistically significant for sudden change and/or linear trend. All other antibiotic use remained unchanged. CDI rates fell with incidence rate ratios of 0.35 (0.17, 0.73) (P=0.009). MRSA incidence did not change [0.79 (0.49, 1.28); P=0.32].
In an evaluator-blinded, active-comparator, noninferiority, multicenter study, children (6 months to <5 years) were randomized 1:1 to receive levofloxacin (10 mg/kg twice daily) or amoxicillin/clavulanate (14:1; amoxicillin 45 mg/kg twice daily) for 10 days, with evaluations 4-6 days of therapy (visit 2), 2-5 days after completing therapy (visit 3), and 10-17 days after last dose (visit 4). Primary outcome was clinical cure at visit 3 based on resolution of clinical signs and symptoms of AOM.
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Augmentin was used prophylactically in 25 patients with an account of the infectious complication risk according to 4 regimens: ultrashort-term (1.2 g intravenously with initial narcosis), short-term (1.2 g intravenously with initial narcosis followed by intravenous administration in a dose of 600 mg in 8 and 16 hours), middle-term (1.2 g intravenously with initial narcosis followed by intravenous administration in a dose of 600 mg every 8 hours for 2 days) and long-term (1.2 g intravenously with initial narcosis followed by intravenous administration in a dose of 600 mg every 8 hours for 3 days). One complication episode as wound suppuration was recorded. The routine approach to the use of antibiotics in emergency abdominal surgery, when antibiotics are administered every day for several days after the operation, should be revised.
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Preterm birth after spontaneous preterm labour is associated with death, neonatal disease, and long-term disability. Previous small trials of antibiotics for spontaneous preterm labour have reported inconclusive results. We did a randomised multicentre trial to resolve this issue.
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The rate of bactericidal activity of a new macrolide, CP-62,993, was compared with that of the combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (in the proportion of 4 to 1) on strains of Branhamella catarrhalis beta-lactamase producers. The antibacterial activity of CP-62,993 was bacterostatic at 0.01 micrograms/ml. After a 6-hour period of bacteriostasis a bactericidal activity (3 log10 CFU/ml) was observed for all concentrations from 0.1 to 10 micrograms/ml after 24 h. The bactericidal rate of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination was more rapid during the first 6 h at 1 and 10 micrograms/ml. However, the concentration required to kill 99.9% of bacteria within 24 h was 1 microgram/ml. In conclusion, CP-62,993 was a bactericidal antibiotic for B. catarrhalis at a lower concentration. This in vitro study suggests that this macrolide may be of great interest in infections due to the B. catarrhalis beta-lactamase producer.
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a rare but potentially serious idiosyncratic reaction. By using candidate gene and genome-wide association studies, replicated associations for DILI susceptibility with HLA genes and genes relevant to drug metabolism have been detected, mainly since 2000. The HLA associations include a strong association between flucloxacillin-induced injury and the class I allele B*5701 and weaker associations for co-amoxiclav and ximelagatran DILI with the class II genotype. These associations suggest an injury mechanism involving an immune response, possibly to a complex of drug or metabolite and protein. For genes relevant to drug metabolism, the best replicated association is between isoniazid DILI and NAT2 slow acetylation. Homozygosity for GSTM1 null and/or GSTT1 null alleles also seems to be a risk factor for DILI, with associations described independently for several drugs. Other not-yet-replicated associations have been described for genes relevant to drug metabolism and oxidative stress and cytokine genes.
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Significant bacteriuria was observed in asymptomatic pregnant women. Periodic studies are recommended to check the outcome of asymptomatic bacteriuria and also monitor any changes in the susceptibility patterns of urinary tract pathogens in pregnant women.
Agar dilution MIC testing of amoxicillin, amoxicillin-BRL 42715, amoxicillin-clavulanate, temafloxacin, and clindamycin against 496 beta-lactamase-producing anaerobic gram-negative rods revealed MICs for 90% of the strains tested of 256.0 (amoxicillin), 2.0 (amoxicillin-BRL 42715 and amoxicillin-clavulanate), and 4.0 (temafloxacin and clindamycin) microgram/ml. Amoxicillin, temafloxacin, and clindamycin inhibited all 44 beta-lactamase-negative strains (MICs for 90% of the strains tested, less than or equal to 2.0 micrograms/ml). BRL 42715 will not be developed, but temafloxacin merits clinical evaluation.