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The efficacy of amoxycillin/clavulanic acid was compared with that of flucloxacillin, vancomycin and amoxycillin in an experimental model of Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. Doses of the antibiotics were selected to produce peak concentrations in rat serum similar to those achievable in man after administration of parenteral therapeutic doses. Amoxycillin clavulanic acid was more effective than amoxycillin alone against endocarditis caused by beta-lactamase producing strains of Staph. aureus, illustrating the beta-lactamase inhibitory activity of clavulanic acid in vivo. Amoxycillin/clavulanic acid was as effective as flucloxacillin in these infections whereas vancomycin was generally less active. These results illustrate the clinical potential of amoxycillin/clavulanic acid in the prophylaxis, or in the therapy of severe staphylococcal infections.
Immediate allergic reactions to β-lactam antibiotics are considered to be one of the most important drug hypersensitivities. A positive skin test (ST) with a combination of major and minor penicillin determinants is usually sufficient to recommend avoidance of the culprit drug, whereas a negative ST is usually followed by an oral challenge test (OCT). Recently, concern has been raised regarding the role of amoxicillin (AMX) ST in the diagnosis of AMX allergy.
We included 22 trials, involving 6872 women and babies.The use of antibiotics following PROM is associated with statistically significant reductions in chorioamnionitis (average risk ratio (RR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 0.96, and a reduction in the numbers of babies born within 48 hours (average RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.87) and seven days of randomisation (average RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.89). The following markers of neonatal morbidity were reduced: neonatal infection (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.85), use of surfactant (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96), oxygen therapy (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.96), and abnormal cerebral ultrasound scan prior to discharge from hospital (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.98). Co-amoxiclav was associated with an increased risk of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis (RR 4.72, 95% CI 1.57 to 14.23).One study evaluated the children's health at seven years of age (ORACLE Children Study) and found antibiotics seemed to have little effect on the health of children.
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In our study, the specimen culture found aerobic bacteria in 70% of cases, especially Gram-negative bacilli. Empiric antibiotherapy in acute complicated appendicitis in children should be efficient against these microorganisms.
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Sixty Jordanian women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) were studied. Of these, 31 were given oral amoxycillin/clavulanic acid (augmentin) for a mean duration of 8.4 days and 29 were given a standard triple drug regimen of oral ampicillin, intramuscular gentamicin and metronidazole tablets/pessaries for a mean duration of 7.2 days. Bacterial culture (cervical and high vaginal swabs) was positive in every case, most often E. coli but sometimes more than one pathogen was isolated. No gonococci were isolated and tests for chlamydia in 16 patients (8 in each group) were negative, suggesting a dissociation between the etiology of PID and sexually transmitted disease in this Jordanian study. After 3 days of treatment, more patients in group I (augmentin) showed diminution of symptoms of pain and discharge (P less than or equal to 0.05) compared to group II. At the end of treatment, complete cure or satisfactory improvement was recorded in 93.1% and 92.9% of cases in the two groups, corresponding to in vitro bacterial efficacy of 90.4% and 96.5%, respectively. No serious side effects were noted in either regimen. The results of this comparative study suggest that oral amoxycillin/clavulanic acid (augmentin) may be a convenient alternative to the triple drug regimen usually administered for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease.
A 47-year-old man presented to the emergency department with a rapidly progressive, generalized rash and pustulosis shortly after he had started amoxicillin/clavulanic acid for the treatment of a pulmonary infection. Based on the patient's history and the clinical symptoms, the diagnosis of 'acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis' (AGEP) was suspected. This was confirmed by histopathological examination. The skin abnormalities slowly disappeared after terminating antibiotic medication.
Patients who were admitted to our hospital for CAP were older and had more comorbidities with a much higher incidence of Gram-negative pathogens than in a previous study. Levofloxacin was at least as effective as amoxicillin/clavulanate plus clarithromycin in clinical and microbiological responses. Levofloxacin had a higher microbiological eradication rate than the combination therapy but the difference was not statistically significant. This deserves further study with a larer sample size.
In comparison with the original formulation of Augmentin administered tid for 10 days in the treatment of AOM in children, the new formulation administered bid for 10 days provides at least equivalent efficacy and causes substantially less diarrhea. Administration for 5 days appears not to provide equivalent efficacy, but the difference appears limited to younger children and the margin of difference is small.
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A 75 year-old woman fell on her right leg on the side of the main road outside her hamlet in the Bresse country and secondarily developed a chronique phagedenic ulceration. We first considered her as suffering from pyoderma gangrenosum. A complete scanning only revealed an autoimmune thyroiditis and a rapidly healing gastric ulceration, and none of the treatments, either local or systemic, helped the skin condition to heal. After 3 weeks of application of a local corticoid ointment, the patient developed fever, general malaise, an exacerbation of her wound and an infiltration of the skin round her knee, together with nodular lymphangitic dissemination. A supplementary bacterial swab disclosed massive proliferation of a slow-growing Gram-positive bacillus, which proved to be Nocardia brasiliensis, together with a methicillino-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. The treatment with sulfamethoxazole-trimetoprim gave a rash after 12 hours and was changed to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, which rapidly proved to be permanently effective.