amoklavin 70 mg
Both amoxicillin- and clavulanic acid-specific T cells participate in the liver injury that develops in certain patients exposed to amoxicillin-clavulanate.
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Lung secretions from patients with bronchiectasis have been studied before and during treatment with amoxycillin/clavulanate (Augmentin 750 mg tds). beta-Lactamase activity was usually present in the sputum sol phase and originated from organisms not usually considered to be the major pathogen. The presence of beta-lactamase was related to inactivation of amoxycillin in the lung secretions. Extensive bacteriological investigation of the sputum before therapy showed several organisms to be present in each sample. Six of eight patients showed a good clinical and biochemical response to therapy with amoxycillin/clavulanate. This, however, could not be predicted or explained by the results of bacterial investigation although Haemophilus influenzae was eradicated in three of these responders. beta-Lactamase activity did not change during treatment, and this investigation thus failed to produce indirect evidence of penetration of clavulanate into the secretions.
amoklavin bid 1000 mg
Clinical symptoms and signs decreased significantly in both treatment groups during phase I (p < 0.01). There was a trend to greater improvement in the patients treated with flunisolide, but only the decrease in turbinate swelling/obstruction was statistically significant at the end of phase I when compared with placebo (p = 0.041). Patients' global assessment of overall effectiveness of treatment was higher for flunisolide than placebo after phase I (p = 0.007) and after phase II (p = 0.08). Maxillary sinus radiographs showed improvement in both treatment groups during phase I (p < 0.004) with somewhat greater regression of abnormal findings in patients treated with flunisolide after phase II (p = 0.066). However, 80% of radiographs were still abnormal at the end of phase I. All types of inflammatory cells were significantly decreased in nasal cytograms in patients treated with flunisolide in comparison with those treated with placebo. Flare-up of sinusitis during phase II occurred in 26% of with those treated with placebo. Flare-up of sinusitis during phase II occurred in 26% of patients treated with flunisolide and 35% of those treated with placebo and tended to be more severe in the latter, although these differences were not statistically significant. Adverse events, mainly gastrointestinal symptoms and headache, were similar in both groups and more frequent in phase I than in phase II, (42 vs 15 patients); these side effects were probably due to the antibiotic.
amoklavin 200 mg
Of the 28 307 E. coli blood isolates, 27.9% were ciprofloxacin non-susceptible (CIPNS), increasing from 17.6% in 2001 to 32.7% in 2009. A continuous increase was observed between CIPNS and other resistances, including cephalosporin resistance due to the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and non-susceptibility to both amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and tobramycin. Although the total use of antibiotics did not increase, community use of levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid increased by 307.2%, 62.6% and 70.1%, respectively. Yearly rates of CIPNS E. coli strongly correlated with the use of levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (r(2 )> 0.80; P < 0.005 in all cases).
Laboratory and clinical studies on BRL 25000 granules (containing clavulanic acid (CVA) 1 part plus amoxicillin (AMPC) 2 parts) were performed in infections in the pediatric field. Following oral administration of BRL 25000 granules at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight, the maximum serum levels of AMPC and CVA achieved approximately 1 hour after dosing were 8.68 micrograms/ml and 4.09 micrograms/ml and declined thereafter with half-lives of 1.39 and 0.80 hours, respectively. The 6-hour urinary recovery rates for AMPC and CVA were 55.81% and 26.08%, respectively. Following oral administration of BRL 25000 granules at a dose of 22.5 and 24.3 mg/kg body weight, the serum levels of AMPC and CVA peaked at 7.37 micrograms/ml and 2.98 micrograms/ml after 1 hour and declined with half-lives of 2.52 and 0.99 hours, respectively. The 6-hour urinary recovery rates for AMPC and CVA were 40.02% and 13.95%, respectively. The clinical efficacy of BRL 25000 granules was evaluated in 23 patients with upper respiratory tract infections, skin infections, etc. Overall the clinical efficacy was good to excellent in 21/23 (91.3%). The bacteriological and clinical efficacy rates for beta-lactamase producing bacteria and non-producing bacteria were 50% (1/2) and 100% (12/12), respectively. Side effects were observed in 1 patient, who experienced mild diarrhea and abdominal pain but not of a severe nature.
amoklavin 14 tablet
This investigation compared the efficacy of oral formulations of amoxycillin/clavulanate and ciprofloxacin in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Forty patients were randomized to receive either Augmentin (1,000 mg amoxycillin +250 mg clavulanate) tds or ciprofloxacin (500 mg) bd. During and before therapy sputum samples were taken for bacteriology, sputum volume measurement and histamine determination. Lung function was also monitored. From sputum, 143 bacterial isolates and 15 yeast strains were obtained before therapy. During therapy with amoxycillin/clavulanate the incidence of Gram-positive isolates decreased significantly whereas ciprofloxacin left their frequency unchanged. On the other hand, ciprofloxacin more effectively diminished the incidence of Gram-negative isolates. Yeasts were grown from the sputum of several patients before and during therapy. Their number did not increase during amoxycillin/clavulanate therapy while it increased under ciprofloxacin. The groups showed no significant differences with regard to sputum production, histamine concentration or lung function. The majority of patients (28/40) acknowledged improvement of their symptoms. There was no significant difference between the groups. On the basis of these results both amoxycillin/clavulanate and ciprofloxacin appear of similar value for treatment of patients with exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.
The subjects were 241 patients with lower respiratory tract infections treated at two medical centers in Austria; 161 of the patients were evaluated clinically and, of these, 69 were evaluated bacteriologically. The patients were randomly assigned to receive ofloxacin (n = 101) or a comparison drug (doxycycline [n = 27] or amoxicillin-clavulanate [n = 33]). The mean age of patients in the ofloxacin group was 61 years; that of patients in the comparison groups was 64 years. The mean duration of treatment was nine days; most patients received the study drug intravenously for three days and then orally for four to seven days. In most patients, the doses were 200 mg of ofloxacin twice daily; 100 mg of doxycycline twice daily; or 2,200 mg of amoxicillin-clavulanate intravenously two or three times daily, followed by 625 mg orally two to four times daily. The clinical response was rated satisfactory (all pretreatment symptoms disappeared) in 28% of the ofloxacin-treated patients and in 22% of the other two groups; improved (all except one symptom improved) in 70% and 65%, respectively; and unsatisfactory in 2% and 13%, respectively. The bacteriologic response was rated satisfactory in 59% of the 39 evaluable ofloxacin-treated patients and in 50% of the 30 patients in the other two groups. Most of the unsatisfactory responses were associated with persistent strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Transient side effects of mild to moderate severity were noted in nine of the 101 ofloxacin-treated patients and in seven of the 60 patients in the other two groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Cefprozil was evaluated in the treatment of acute otitis media with effusion in three open, randomized, multicenter comparative clinical trials. In two trials, 891 pediatric patients were enrolled to either cefprozil or amoxicillin-clavulanate dosage regimens. The treatment groups were comparable in demographic characteristics, and presented with otalgia, middle-ear effusion, or inflamed or bulging tympanic membrane on otoscopic examination. In all patients, tympanocentesis and a culture were required. Two cefprozil oral doses were evaluated, 30 mg/kg/day and 40 mg/kg/day divided into two equal doses (b.i.d.). Amoxicillin-clavulanate was administered at 40 mg/kg/day in three divided doses (t.i.d.). The recommended duration of therapy was ten days. The predominant bacteria isolated were Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. The overall satisfactory clinical response rates were similar for cefprozil (83%) and amoxicillin-clavulanate (81%). The bacteriological response rates did not differ significantly, at 84% and 82%. Cefprozil eradicated the most common pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae, more often at 91%, vs. 84% for amoxicillin-clavulanate. The eradication rates were similar against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. The patients treated with cefprozil had a lower rate of adverse clinical events (11%) compared to those with amoxicillin-clavulanate (20%). More gastrointestinal adverse experiences, including diarrhea, were reported in the amoxicillin-clavulanate-treated patients. In Study 3, cefprozil 30 mg/kg/day (b.i.d.) was compared to cefaclor 40 mg/kg/day (t.i.d.) and cefixime 8 mg/kg/day (q.d) in the treatment of acute otitis media in 388 pediatric patients. The patients were treated for 10 days, with a follow-up of 18 days. The overall clinical cure rates were 85%, 89% and 85%, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Early diagnosis and treatment of anaerobic pharyngitis is critical to prevent Lemierre Syndrome. Respiratory precautions should be recommended to medical staff caring for patients with suspected Lemierre Syndrome to prevent nosocomial transmission.
amoklavin bid 500 mg
From a pool of 1450 children (aged 1-10 years) with SOM, defined by tympanometry as having type B or C2 tympanograms, 429 with SOM of at least 3 months' duration were included in the trial. After exclusion of 69 patients, the remaining 360 were evenly distributed among 4 treatment groups: penicillin V (Primcillin) for 14 and 28 days, and amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in combination (Spektramox) for 14 and 28 days. Criteria for improvement was a change in tympanometric findings to type C1 or type A.