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The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of short-term, combined 5-nitroimidazole treatment in vaginal dysbacteriosis with dominant anaerobic species. The presence of infection was proven by microscopic examination of vaginal fluid (Nugent, modified by Ison-Hay-Keane scale), microbiological culture, and by clinical symptoms (Amsel). 179 patients were included in our study. Clinical and microbiological examinations were performed prior to the treatment and at the end of the study (day 8 after the first dose of short- term combined 5-nitroimidazole treatment). The treatment included applications of 1 g BID tinidazole for two days and vaginal suppositories of 1000mg metronidazol at day 1 and 3. Based on the microbiological tests prior to the treatment Gardnerella vaginalis alone was present in 132 patients (73.7%). The rest of the patients, 47 or 26.3% of the treatment group, the infection was present by mixture of several anaerobic species. At the end of the treatment 83.2% of the treated population showed no clinical symptoms of dysbacteriosis, and 73.7% of the treated patients showed no dysbacteriosis in microbiological test results. Based on the results mentioned above it was determined that the short-term combined 5-nitroimidazole therapy was effective in treatment of vaginal dysbacteriosis with dominant anaerobic species.
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The occurrence of subdural empyema is an uncommon but possible sequela of a complicated tooth extraction. A multidisciplinary approach involving otolaryngologist, neurosurgeons, clinical microbiologist, and neuroradiologist is essential. Antibiotic therapy with surgical approach is the gold standard treatment.
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Local delivery of antibiotics has been shown to be effective in reducing periodontopathic microorganisms. The purpose of this study is to formulate gels containing secnidazole or doxycycline hydrochloride that could be used in the treatment of periodontitis by direct periodontal intrapocket administration. Different mucoadhesive polymers were used as cellulose derivatives, carbopol and eudragit. The prepared gels were evaluated for their in vitro drug release, rheological behavior, and mucoadhesive force. Increasing the concentration of each polymer increased the viscosity, mucoadhesion, and the time required for 30 and 50% release of the original mass of each drug. Gels with appropriate balance of the above-examined parameters were selected for microbiological evaluation. Microbiological studies on selected gels showed faster release of the two drugs (expressed as inhibition zones) than the commercial products of chlorhexidine gel (Eluge and miconazole nitrate emulgel (Miconaz).
The largest decrease in pathogens was found after 3 months, with the most pronounced differences between DOX and SRP (P <0.05). At 6 months, pathogens were still reduced markedly in all groups. Treatment results were consolidated for VEH and DOX, with a slight deterioration for SRP (DOX versus SRP: P <0.001). Resistance was observed to amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, clindamycin, and metronidazole (four isolates) but not to doxycycline.
Metronidazole (MNZ) is an antibiotic pollutant with a high occurrence in the ambient medium. In this study, the anode material Ti/SnO2-Sb-Ce prepared in the lab was employed to investigate the feasibility of the electrochemical process to treat antibiotic in wastewater. The result showed that metronidazole could be effectively removed using Ti/SnO2-Sb-Ce. The degradation efficiency of 88% was obtained under the current density 1.6 mA cm(-2), pH = 5.6 (not adjusted), electrolyte (Na2SO4) concentration of 0.2 M for electrolysis 2 h. The removal percentage was higher by 17% compared with the control when the bare Ti was applied. Meanwhile, the energy consumption on Ti/SnO2-Sb-Ce was about one-seventh of that on Ti. The characterization of the material was conducted by the thermal field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The Ti/SnO2-Sb-Ce anode displayed compact, multi-porous morphology and good redox reversibility. The influencing factors such as current density, pH, concentration of Na2SO4, initial MNZ concentration were studied to obtain main factors and optimum conditions. In addition, a preliminary study on the mechanism of the electro-oxidation was carried out. The results demonstrate that chemisorbed oxygen has a dominant role in MNZ removal.
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H. pylori eradication is usually performed with three or four drugs for at least seven days. Recently four reports have shown a cure rate of approximately 90% using a four-day quadruple therapy. The objectives of this prospective study were: 1) to evaluate the efficacy of pantoprazole-based quadruple therapy, and 2) to compare the efficacy and tolerability of four-day with seven-day quadruple therapy.
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Two different groups of patients were screened for BV at the first antenatal visit, namely primigravidae and high-risk multigravidae who had had a previous midtrimester abortion or preterm delivery. Patients where BV was diagnosed clinically or on Gram's stain of a smear taken from the posterior vaginal fornix, received either 400 mg metronidazole, or 100 mg vitamin C orally twice daily for 2 days. The Gram's stain was repeated after 4 weeks. If BV was found again, treatment with the same drug was repeated.
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To evaluate the effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on gestational age at delivery in women with previous preterm labor and bacterial vaginosis.
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Our previous observation that NADP-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-1) is down-regulated in metronidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis isolates prompted us to further characterise the enzyme. In addition to its canonical enzyme activity as a secondary alcohol dehydrogenase, a pronounced, so far unknown, background NADPH-oxidising activity in absence of any added substrate was observed when the recombinant enzyme or T. vaginalis extract were used. This activity was strongly enhanced at low oxygen concentrations. Unexpectedly, all functions of ADH-1 were efficiently inhibited by coenzyme A which is a cofactor of a number of key enzymes in T. vaginalis metabolism, i.e. pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR). These observations could be extended to Entamoeba histolytica and Tritrichomonas foetus, both of which have a homologue of ADH-1, but not to Giardia lamblia which lacks an NADP-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase. Although we could not identify the substrate of the observed background activity, we propose that ADH-1 functions as a major sink for NADPH in microaerophilic parasites at low oxygen tension.